[Part 1 of this article addressed the need for Cuba’s participation in conflicts in Zaire, the Congo and Guinea-Bissau during the 1960s to remain concealed for over three decades. It covered the background to the struggles, what Cubans found in Africa, the role of race relations in Cuba’s campaigns, and the recruitment of doctors. Part 2 explores the working conditions of revolutionary military doctors, physical and emotional consequences on participating physicians, interactions with African civilians, Cuba’s first large medical scholarship program, the first mass vaccination effort in Africa, and how Cuba’s military and medical efforts affected Africa.]
Military Doctors at Work
Physicians found working conditions to be quite different from Cuban polyclinics. It was very clear to Virgilio Camacho that “although I was a doctor, I was armed because at any moment I might have to participate in combat.” The Cuban doctors practiced in small groups. In the Congo, the group of Rodrigo Álvarez included a surgeon, an orthopedic, and two pediatricians. Later, they were joined by an anesthesiologist nurse and dentists. In 1966, Domingo Díaz traveled toward Guinea-Bissau as 1 of 9 physicians. Once there, he was assigned to Saará in the northern region where there were “the only three doctors and there were no Cuban nurses.” They worked closely with several young Guineans and trained them as nurses.
Since the Cuban staff rotated and PAIGC policy…