A new agreement between the United States and the European Union on the surveillance of cross-border internet data flow has come into effect.
The US-EU commercial data pact, named Privacy Shield, imposes stricter obligations on American companies to safeguard the personal data of European individuals.
The US government says that based on the new agreement, any access to private data on national security grounds will be subject to clearer conditions and EU citizens can file a complaint about US spying.
The Privacy Shield seeks to strengthen the protection of EU citizens whose data is moved to US servers.
Those Europeans who think their data has been misused will have the chance to file a complaint with the US State Department.
Google, Facebook and Microsoft said they would sign up to the Privacy Shield and would work with European data protection authorities in case of complaints about US spying.
A similar framework, Safe Harbour, was rejected by the…