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Why Is the Gov’t Still Anti-Hemp?

First off, what is Hempcrete? As the name suggests, hempcrete is a building material that incorporates hemp into its mixture. Versatile and hardy, it...

Here Comes Ukrainian Hemp

So the United States wants to buy hemp from the Ukraine. I suppose we should be happy. Anytime the U.S. government gives a country money that is not earmarked for weapons, we probably shouldn't too closely examine the unelected neo-liberals and neo-Naz...

Has California Joined the Hemp Revolution?

With all of the attention focused on the legalization of cannabis' psychoactive variety we call marijuana, it's no surprise much of the public is...

Vermont Completely Nullifies Federal Hemp Ban

Michael Lotfibenswann.comAugust 22, 2013 Vermont has become the most recent state to take a stand against...

Cops will hand-out Doritos at Washington’s first post-legalization Hempfest

Rather than arresting marijuana users, police officers will be giving them Doritos at this year’s “Hempfest,” an annual celebration that takes place in Washington...

Why Can’t Hemp Get You High?

Even though the plant genus Cannabis is generally considered as a single species (CannabisSativa L.), hemp that has been bred for industrial and commercial dedications...

How Hemp Legalization Would Benefit My Family and Country

July 1, 2013  | ...

U.S. House of Representatives Votes to Legalize Industrial Hemp

The U.S. House of Representatives voted 225-200 on June 20 to legalize the industrial farming of hemp fiber. Hemp is the same species as...

U.S. House of Representatives Votes to Legalize Industrial Hemp

The U.S. House of Representatives voted 225-200 on June 20 to legalize the industrial farming of hemp fiber. Hemp is the same species as...

Hemp Is Harmless, a Potential Economic Miracle, and Still Illegal in America — But...

Powerful politicians across the country are pushing to bring hemp back.

Photo Credit: SHUTTERSTOCK.COM

February 13, 2013  |  

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The American hemp industry, revived in the 1990s in a wave of cannabis-fueled environmentalism, now sells $450 million a year of products from hemp-oil soap to hemp-coned speakers for guitar amplifiers, according to an industry trade group. Yet all the raw material used for these products, from fiber to hempseed oil, has to be imported, as it’s still illegal to grow hemp in the United States.

The Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2013, introduced in the House on February 6 by Rep. Thomas Massie (R-KY), would end that. It would amend federal drug law to legalize growing cannabis that contains less than 0.3% THC. Its 28 cosponsors include Kentucky Republican John Yarmuth and Collin Peterson of Minnesota, the ranking Democrat on the House Agriculture Committee. Mostly Democrats, they span a geographic and ideological spectrum from Dan Benishek, a conservative Republican from Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, to Barbara Lee of Oakland, California, former chair of the Congressional Black Caucus. 

“Industrial hemp is a sustainable crop and could be a great economic opportunity for Kentucky farmers,” Massie said in a statement announcing the bill. “Tobacco is no longer a viable crop for many of us in Kentucky and we understand how hard it is for a family farm to turn a profit. Industrial hemp will give small farmers another opportunity to succeed.”

Similar legislation failed to get even a committee hearing in the 2011-'12 session of Congress, but supporters are optimistic. Both of Kentucky’s senators—Rand Paul and Minority Leader Mitch McConnell—plan to introduce a companion bill, with Oregon Democrat Ron Wyden a likely cosponsor. McConnell also recently endorsed a Kentucky state bill to allow hemp farming if the federal law was changed to permit it. Kentucky Agriculture Commissioner James Comer is pushing that measure, against opposition from police groups that claim it would make it difficult to enforce the laws against growing marijuana.

“The utilization of hemp to produce everything from clothing to paper is real, and if there is a capacity to center a new domestic industry in Kentucky that will create jobs in these difficult economic times, that sounds like a good thing to me,” McConnell said in a statement issued January 31. Hemp Industries Association spokesperson Tom Murphy says the e-mail he got with that news had the subject line “Are you sitting down?”

Hemp plants grown to produce oil or fiber are of the same species as cannabis grown for marijuana, but their genetics and the way they are cultivated are as different as a Chihuahua and a Great Dane. Cannabis plants grown for marijuana are bred for high THC and given enough space to branch out so they can produce buds. Cannabis plants grown for hemp have much lower THC and are packed densely—typically 35 to 50 per square foot—because the stalks are the most valuable part. 

Cannabis’ first known use for fiber, in Taiwan about 8000 BCE, predates its first known use as an intoxicant by thousands of years. In the 18th and 19th centuries, hemp was a significant crop in the U.S., with Kentucky the main producer and the fibers used to make rope, cloth and paper. The industry declined in the late 19th century, as technological advances made cotton easier to harvest and process, and sisal and jute imports from Asia provided cheaper materials for rope. 

By 1937, when the federal Marihuana Tax Act levied a punitive $100-an-ounce tax on marijuana, hemp was not an important enough crop to be included in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s annual “Farm Outlook” forecast. The 1937 law did not actually outlaw the cannabis plant, and it exempted hemp stalks and products such as fiber or oil, but it required growers to pay $1 to get a permit from the federal government—not an insignificant sum in the Depression, when millions of farmers made less than $12 a week. (No sustainable evidence supports the widespread belief that marijuana prohibition was pushed through by a Hearst-DuPont-governmental conspiracy to eliminate hemp as competition for wood-pulp paper, nylon, and polyester.)

High Time for Hemp

Four years ago, Michelle Obama picked up a shovel and made a powerful symbolic statement about America's food and farm future: She turned a patch of White House lawn into a working organic garden.(Domiriel/Flickr)

That was a great move, earning kudos from just about everyone this side of Monsanto and the pesticide lobby. But now, as she begins another four years in the people's mansion, the first lady is probably asking herself: "How can I top that? What can I do this time around to plant a crop of common sense in our country's political soil that will link America's farmers, consumers, environment and grassroots economy into one big harvest of common good?"

Thanks for asking, Ms. Obama, and please allow me to intrude into your thoughts with a one-word suggestion: hemp. Plant a good, healthy stand of industrial hemp next to your organic garden!

This would, of course, drive the anti-drug zealots up the wall (a good place for them, I think). "Holy J. Edgar Hoover," they'd scream, "hemp is a distant cousin of marijuana!"

Well, yes, but the industrial variety of cannabis lacks the psychoactive aspects of pot, so their hysteria is misplaced. Industrial hemp won't make anyone high, but it certainly can make us happy, because it would deliver a new economic and environmental high for America.

Plus, hemp production is firmly rooted in American history. Question: Besides being founders of our republic, what did Thomas Jefferson and George Washington have in common? Answer: Both farmed hemp. Most of America's founders were strong promoters of this extraordinarily useful agricultural crop, with Jefferson declaring it to be "of first necessity ... to the wealth and protection of the country."

The first draft of our Constitution was written on hemp paper. "Old Ironsides" was powered by sails of hemp cloth. As late as World War II, the government urgently pushed farmers to grow the crop as part of a "Hemp for Victory" program.

So why are American farmers today prohibited from producing this patriotic, profitable, pesticide-free plant? Political nuttiness. Most recently, in a frenzy of reefer madness, U.S. drug police decided that President Dick Nixon's "Controlled Substance Act of 1970" not only outlawed marijuana, but also its non-narcotic cousin, industrial hemp.

If ignorance is bliss, they must've been ecstatic, yet their nuttiness remains the law of our land today.

While our nation is the world's biggest consumer of hemp products (from rope to shampoo, building materials to food), the mad masters of our insane "drug war" have lumped hemp and marijuana together as "Schedule 1 controlled substances" — making our Land of the Free the world's only industrialized country that bans farmers from growing this benign, profitable, job-creating and environmentally beneficial plant.

Thus, the U.S.A. is consuming millions of dollars' worth of products made from hemp, that hemp comes from producers in other countries, because our farmers aren't allowed to grow it in the U.S.A. and reap the economic benefits here at home.

The good news, though, is that a wave of sanity is now wafting across America. In Colorado, for example, farmer Michael Bowman and Denver hemp advocate Lynda Parker helped pass Amendment 64 in last fall's election. While it legalizes personal pot use, which got all the media attention, it also directs the legislature to set up a program for "the cultivation, processing and sale of industrial hemp."

Bowman now hopes to be the first American farmer in generations to plant a legal crop of it. Appropriately enough, he hopes to do so on April 30 — the 80th birthday of family-farmer hero and hemp champion Willie Nelson.

Even red states like Kentucky are on the move. Its Republican ag commissioner, backed by its Chamber of Commerce, is campaigning to legalize hemp farming there, and Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul is cosponsoring a national bill with Oregon Democrat Ron Wyden to take hemp off the controlled substance list.

As Bowman puts it: "Can we just stop being stupid?" To help move us in that direction, he's seeking 100,000 signatures on a online petition requesting that President Obama include the words "industrial hemp" in his Feb. 12 State of the Union speech. I'm sure the president would appreciate my advice on this, so I suggest he say: "First thing tomorrow morning, Michelle and I are going to give a symbolic jumpstart to the development of a thriving hemp industry in America by planting a stand of it on the White House lawn."

To sign Bowman's petition, go to the White House website: petitions.whitehouse.gov.

© 2012 Creators.com

Jim Hightower

National radio commentator, writer, public speaker, and author of the book, Swim Against The Current: Even A Dead Fish Can Go With The Flow, Jim Hightower has spent three decades battling the Powers That Be on behalf of the Powers That Ought To Be - consumers, working families, environmentalists, small businesses, and just-plain-folks.

High Time for Hemp

Four years ago, Michelle Obama picked up a shovel and made a powerful symbolic statement about America's food and farm future: She turned a patch of White House lawn into a working organic garden.(Domiriel/Flickr)

That was a great move, earning kudos from just about everyone this side of Monsanto and the pesticide lobby. But now, as she begins another four years in the people's mansion, the first lady is probably asking herself: "How can I top that? What can I do this time around to plant a crop of common sense in our country's political soil that will link America's farmers, consumers, environment and grassroots economy into one big harvest of common good?"

Thanks for asking, Ms. Obama, and please allow me to intrude into your thoughts with a one-word suggestion: hemp. Plant a good, healthy stand of industrial hemp next to your organic garden!

This would, of course, drive the anti-drug zealots up the wall (a good place for them, I think). "Holy J. Edgar Hoover," they'd scream, "hemp is a distant cousin of marijuana!"

Well, yes, but the industrial variety of cannabis lacks the psychoactive aspects of pot, so their hysteria is misplaced. Industrial hemp won't make anyone high, but it certainly can make us happy, because it would deliver a new economic and environmental high for America.

Plus, hemp production is firmly rooted in American history. Question: Besides being founders of our republic, what did Thomas Jefferson and George Washington have in common? Answer: Both farmed hemp. Most of America's founders were strong promoters of this extraordinarily useful agricultural crop, with Jefferson declaring it to be "of first necessity ... to the wealth and protection of the country."

The first draft of our Constitution was written on hemp paper. "Old Ironsides" was powered by sails of hemp cloth. As late as World War II, the government urgently pushed farmers to grow the crop as part of a "Hemp for Victory" program.

So why are American farmers today prohibited from producing this patriotic, profitable, pesticide-free plant? Political nuttiness. Most recently, in a frenzy of reefer madness, U.S. drug police decided that President Dick Nixon's "Controlled Substance Act of 1970" not only outlawed marijuana, but also its non-narcotic cousin, industrial hemp.

If ignorance is bliss, they must've been ecstatic, yet their nuttiness remains the law of our land today.

While our nation is the world's biggest consumer of hemp products (from rope to shampoo, building materials to food), the mad masters of our insane "drug war" have lumped hemp and marijuana together as "Schedule 1 controlled substances" — making our Land of the Free the world's only industrialized country that bans farmers from growing this benign, profitable, job-creating and environmentally beneficial plant.

Thus, the U.S.A. is consuming millions of dollars' worth of products made from hemp, that hemp comes from producers in other countries, because our farmers aren't allowed to grow it in the U.S.A. and reap the economic benefits here at home.

The good news, though, is that a wave of sanity is now wafting across America. In Colorado, for example, farmer Michael Bowman and Denver hemp advocate Lynda Parker helped pass Amendment 64 in last fall's election. While it legalizes personal pot use, which got all the media attention, it also directs the legislature to set up a program for "the cultivation, processing and sale of industrial hemp."

Bowman now hopes to be the first American farmer in generations to plant a legal crop of it. Appropriately enough, he hopes to do so on April 30 — the 80th birthday of family-farmer hero and hemp champion Willie Nelson.

Even red states like Kentucky are on the move. Its Republican ag commissioner, backed by its Chamber of Commerce, is campaigning to legalize hemp farming there, and Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul is cosponsoring a national bill with Oregon Democrat Ron Wyden to take hemp off the controlled substance list.

As Bowman puts it: "Can we just stop being stupid?" To help move us in that direction, he's seeking 100,000 signatures on a online petition requesting that President Obama include the words "industrial hemp" in his Feb. 12 State of the Union speech. I'm sure the president would appreciate my advice on this, so I suggest he say: "First thing tomorrow morning, Michelle and I are going to give a symbolic jumpstart to the development of a thriving hemp industry in America by planting a stand of it on the White House lawn."

To sign Bowman's petition, go to the White House website: petitions.whitehouse.gov.

© 2012 Creators.com

Jim Hightower

National radio commentator, writer, public speaker, and author of the book, Swim Against The Current: Even A Dead Fish Can Go With The Flow, Jim Hightower has spent three decades battling the Powers That Be on behalf of the Powers That Ought To Be - consumers, working families, environmentalists, small businesses, and just-plain-folks.

Are We on the Verge of an American Hemp Renaissance?

Advocates for hemp legalization and politicians are building pressure, with the biggest push in Kentucky.

January 11, 2013  |  

Photo Credit: SHUTTERSTOCK.COM

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Kentucky was America’s leading hemp producer in the early 19th century.  Now, two hundreds year later, after a  historic election for drug policy has led to a shift for marijuana policy reform in America, Kentucky lawmakers are taking steps to revive the crop.  While advocates for hemp legalization say the plant could bring a wealth of green jobs to Kentucky, deep-rooted drug stigma and conflict with federal law have made the legislation’s passing unlikely. Nonetheless, two state bills are in the works, while a federal proposal aims to clear the way for state legalization.  Lawmakers suggest the bills could at least open up the conversation about hemp, and clear misconceptions about its use.

Because hemp is increasingly imported from Canada, growing and making  it in the US could save the US money and create green jobs at home. Aside from soy, no other plant has shown the potential to create so many different products -- from hemp soap to paper and oil. Moreover, hemp rarely requires pesticides, can be grown in the same fields over several consecutive years, and produces biodegradable plastics and biofuels. Lightweight and dense, hemp-limeis a building material that known to be an efficient insulator leaving behind a minimal carbon footprint.  

Kicking off the call for hemp production in Kentucky is KY Representative Terry Mills (D), who has pre-filed an industrial hemp bill that would allow hemp to be made from marijuana crops  containing .3% THC, which, at at least one and a half times less than typical marijuana THC levels, would not get you high. T he marijuana that is psychoactive, moreover, comes from the flowering buds, leaves, and resin of the plant, while the stalks and seeds are what make  hemp.  of the cannabis plant include the flowering tops (buds), the leaves, and the resin of the cannabis plant. The remainder of the plant — stalks and sterilized seeds — is what some people refer to as “hemp.”

A federal hemp bill is indeed in the works, but  the chances of it passing in the near future are slim to none.  Called the Hemp Farming Act of 2012 U.S, Senators Ron Wyden (D-OR), Rand Paul (R-KY), Jeff Merkley (D-OR), and Bernie Sanders (I-VT) introduced the bil this summer. Iit would amend the Controlled Substances Act so that low-THC hemp is allowed, and exempt industrial hemp from marijuana legislation.  "I'm not opposed to it," said state Rep.  Jim DeCesare (R),  "It is a good alternative crop for the ag community." Stil, DeCesare acknowledges the prevalent misunderstanding that the pot people smoke is just the same as hemp.

"They are not the same," he said.  "It is going to take an education effort" for the bill to pass the state House. If they can make it happen, which is unlikely, the benefits would be immense. As Rand Paul recently wrote, "[Hemp] jobs will be ripe for the taking, and I want farmers in Kentucky to be the first in line.”

Kristen Gwynne is an associate editor and drug policy reporter at AlterNet.  Follow her on Twitter: @KristenGwynne

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--2014--

784. Oct. 6-9, speaker, Praxis Peace Institute conference, THE ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABILITY-Emerging Models for a Healthy Planet, Cowell Theater, Fort Mason, San Francisco

783. Sept. 12-14, participant, RENY Rethinkecon conference, http://rethinkecon.com/, NY City

782. Aug. 20, interview with Rohan Freeman, ignoranti.org, 10 a.m. PST

781. July 29-Aug. 5. Moving Beyond Capitalism conference, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

780. July 9, speaker, 2014 Annual Conference of the Council of Georgist Organizations, Inc., Radisson Newport Beach Hotel, near the Orange County John Wayne Airport, 9:15 a.m. PT

779. July 2nd IT’S OUR MONEY WITH ELLEN BROWN – EMINENT DOMAIN TO THE RESCUE? – Progressive Radio Network. Listen to archive here.

778. June 29, interview with Stephen Golden, KABC radio, Pasadena, 7 pm PT

777. June 25, interview, Kerry Lutz - Financial Survival Network, 1 pm ET. Listen to archive here.

776. June 21, participant and speaker, General Assembly of the Green Party of California, http://www.cagreens.org/ga/2014-06/agenda-draft-to-counties, Santa Barbara

775. June 7, interview with Doug Bennett, Unspun: An Experiment in Truth-Telling, KKRN Community radio, 9 am PT Listen to archive here.

774. June 2, interview, Voice of Russia (pre-recorded, check their site).

773. May 31, interview, the Joe Whitehead Show, http://thejoewhiteheadshow.com/, 11:30 am, EDT

772. May 26, interview, Wealth DNA Radio Show, Blog Talk Radio, wealthdna.us, noon EST

771. May 26, Speaker at Occupy SF Forum, Unite HERE Local 2 Union Hall, 215 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco -- along with Laura Wells, Lt. Gov. candidate Jena Goodman, Sect. of State candidate David Curtis, and Congressional candidate Barry Hermanson, 6 pm

770. May 26, interview on the Wealth DNA Radio Show (Blog Talk Radio: wealthdna.us) noon ET

769. May 25, "Occupy Oakland" barbecue at Mike Wilson’s house: 3413 Belmont Ave., El Cerrito, 1:30 pm

768. May 25, interview, the Bob Charles Show, Web Radio Station http://www.kinetichifi.com/, 2 pm EST

767. May 24, Attend and speak at the Sacramento "March against Monsanto" anti-GMO event (starts at the North steps of the State Capitol building).

766. May 23, c. 11:00 am -- Speak to the "Campus Greens" at De Anza College, Cupertino

765. May 23. Ellen and Laura Wells will speak at the "Green Party Candidates Night" -- at the Richmond Progressive Alliance office, in the Bobby Bowens Progressive Center, 1021 Macdonald Ave., Richmond, 7 pm

764. May 22, Monterey Co. Green Party candidates forum, with Cindy Sheehan and Laura Wells, Monterey College of Law, 100 Col. Durham St., Seaside, CA 93955, 7 pm

763. May 20, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com (pre-recorded, check for air time.)

762. May 15, interview with Alan Butler, Butler on Business, Liberty Express Radio, 10 AM EDT

761. May 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 7 am PST

760. May 13, interview with Robert Stark and Jeff Crow, Valley Talk Live, centralvalleytalk.com, Fresno, 4 pm PT. Listen to archive here.

759. May 11, Skype participant, Green Party candidate Q&A event, Lieblyl Proctor Library
6501 Telegraph Avenue
Oakland, CA 94607
Between 65th and 66th St. 5 pm

758. May 10, United We Stand Festival, Pauley Pavilion, UCLA,
https://unitedwestandfest.com/confirmed-guests/

757. May 6, inteview with Rock Cash, The People Speak Radio. Listen to archive here.

756. May 1, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 9 a.m. PDT

755. April 29, moderator, Great Minds #66 with Nomi Prins, Los Angeles, CA., 7 pm PT

754. April 23, Ellen interviews Nomi Prins on It's Our Money. Listen to archive here.

753. April 21, interview with Robert Stark and Jeff Crow, Valley Talk Live, centralvalleytalk.com, Fresno, 4:30 PT

752. April 17, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow, 10 pm EST

751. April 17, interview with Greg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 EST

750. April 8, It's Our Money with Ellen Brown, interiews Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers. Listen to archive here.

749. April 8, interview with Alan Butler, Butler on Business, Liberty Express Radio, 11:30 AM EDT

748. April 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 9 a.m. PDT

747. April 3, interview with James Banks, KGNU radio, Boulder, CO, 5 p.m. PT

746. April 2, interview, WHDTWorldNews, Nextnewsnetwork.com, 10:30 a. m. PDT

745. March 26, 1 pm PDT, It’s Our Money with Ellen Brown. Ellen interviews Prof. ROBERT HOCKETT--fascinating background material for understanding the banks' role in the foreclosure mess and the eminent domain solution. Listen to the archive here.

744. March 24, interview with Kevin Zeese JD and Margaret Flowers MD, Clearing the FOG on We Act Radio, 1480 AM Washington, DC, 8 a.m. PDT

743. March 23rd, "Banking for the People—Not for Wall Street," Agenda for a Prophetic Faith Lecture Series, Claremont United Methodist Church, 211 W. Foothill Blvd., Claremont, CA 91711, http://www.claremontumc.org/, 7 pm PT

742. Apr. 13, Interview with Chris Moore, KDKA Pittsburgh, 5 pm EST

741. March 18, 2 pm, Democratic Club, Friendly Valley Conference Room, Newhall, CA.

740. March 13, interview with Fred Smart, American Underground Network, 8 pm, CDT

739. March 12, 12 pm PDT, It's Our Money radio show with Ellen Brown, featuring Prof. TIM CANOVA on the Federal Reserve. Listen to archive here.

738. March 4, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

737. Feb. 23, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

736. Feb 20, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 3 pm, PST

735. Feb. 17, interview, Strike Debt Bay Area, KPFA, Berkeley, 2 pm (?) PST

734. Feb16, interview with Gary Dubin, The Foreclosure Hour (http://www.foreclosurehour.com/the-host.html), 5 pm PST

733. Feb. 11, interview with Clint Richardson, RBN 5 pm PST

732. Feb 9, interview with Stephen Golden, DEFENDING THE AMERICAN DREAM, KABC Los Angeles, 6 am, PST Listen to the archive here.

731. Feb. 6, interview, Move to Amend Reports, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/movetoamend, 5 pm PST

730. Feb. 5, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 9:30 am PST

729. January 30, interview, Kerry Lutz - Financial Survival Network, 12 pm EST

728. January 30, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

727. January 29, interview on Latin Waves, 8 pm PST

726. January 28, Green Party Shadow Cabinet response to State of the Union Speech. http://www.livestream.com/greenpartyus 6 pm PST

725. January 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST. Listen here.

724. January 23, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, 12 noon PST. Listen here.

723. January 22, interview with Utrice Leid, "Leid Stories,", PRN.FM, 1 pm EST

722. January 21, interview, Independent Underground Radio LIVE, 9:15 PST. Listen here.

721. January 12, Open Forum with Green Party candidates Luis Rodriguez, Laura Wells and Ellen Brown, hosted by LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) 11277 GARDEN GROVE BLVD., Garden Grove, CA. 2-4 pm

720. January 11, interview with Bill Still on running for California Treasurer. Watch it here. And see another one here.

719. January 8, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, 12 noon PST. Listen here. (It's the one labelled "Take the Fed Reserve Public.")

718. Jan 7, interview, The Burt Cohen Show, 12 noon ET

--2013--

717. Dec. 30, interview, Stuart Vener Tells It Like It Is, see http://stuartvener.com for stations, 11:30 am EST

716. Dec. 26, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow and Ralph Fucetola, 10 pm EST

715. Dec. 21, interview, KPRO Radio San Francisco, 9:30 am PST

714. Dec. 18, interview, The Power Hour with Joyce Riley, 8 a.m. CT

713. Dec. 18, interview, Unwrapped Radio, WRFG, http://www.tuneinradio.com/, 12:40 EST

712. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST, listen here.
711. Dec. 15, presentation, A Public Bank for Mendocino, at the Crown Hall in Mendocino, Ca., 7 pm

710. Dec. 15, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Mendocino Environmental Center
106 West Standley, Ukiah, CA 95482, 2 pm

709. Dec. 14, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Little Lake Grange, Willits, Ca. 7 pm

708. Dec. 13, interview on All About Money, KZYX radio, 9 a.m. PST

707. Dec. 13, interview, Radio Islam, WCEV 1450 AM, 12:05 pm, CST

706. Dec. 12, appearance with Doug McKenty, "The Shift," Mendocino TV, 4:30 pm PST

705. Dec. 11, interview on WHDT World News, http://NNN.is/on-WHDT, 5:30 and 11:00 pm EST. Watch the archive here.

704. Dec. 11, interview, WORT Community Radio, Madison, Wisconsin, 6:10 a.m. PST

703. Dec. 11, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 10:30 PST

702. Dec. 9, UnWrapped Radio, Atlanta, 1 pm PST.

701. Dec. 9, GOHarrison, KPFK Los Angeles, 3:30 pm PST.

700. Dec. 9, interview, Air Cascadia show, KBOO radio, Portland, 10 am PST

699. Dec. 5, interview, WHDT World News TV, 2 pm PST

698. Dec. 4, interview with David Swanson, talknationradio, 7pm PST

697. Dec. 4, interview with Rob Kall, The Rob Kall Bottom-Up Radio Show, 1360 AM, 7:30 pm EST

696. Dec. 3, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

695. Dec. 2, interview with Val Muchowski, Women's Voices, KZYX, 7 p.m. PST

694. Nov. 29, interview with Gregg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 PST

693. Nov. 16, interview This is Hell! radio show, WNUR 89.3 fm, thisishell.com/live, 11.20 a.m. EST. Listen to archive here

692. Nov. 15, interview with George Berry, The Financial News Network Show, truthfrequencyradio.com, 1 pm PST

691. Nov. 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 4 pm PSTf

690. Nov. 14, interview with Neil Foster, Reality Bytes show, Awake Radio (UK), Shazziz Radio (US), 8 pm UK time.

689. Nov. 13, interview with Bonnie Faulkner, KPFA, Los Angeles. Listen to archive here.

688. Nov. 12, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

687. Nov. 11, interview, Between the Lines News Magazine, WPKN radio, Bridgeport, CT, 9 p.m. ET. Listen to archive here

686. Nov. 10, skype participant, forum at the Putrajaya International Islamic Arts and Cultural Festival, "Global Economic and Monetary Crisis: What Needs to be Done?" Putrajaya, Malaysia, 11 a.m. MYT, 7 pm, Nov. 9 PST

685. Nov. 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

684. Oct. 31, interview with Voice of Russia radio, American edition, 2:30 pm, CET (Central Europe Time.) Listen to archive here.

683. Oct. 23, interview with Daniel Estulin on RT tv

682. Oct. 16, interview with Per Fereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 11 am PST

681. Oct. 15, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 7-9 PM, Hudson Bay Hotel, Athlone, Ireland.

680. Oct. 14, presentation, Cork, Ireland

679. Oct. 12, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 2-4 PM, Springfield Hotel in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland. Information on these three events here.

678. October 4, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 2:30 pm, PST

677. Oct. 3, interview with Joyce Riley, the Power Hour. Listen to archive here.

676. Oct. 1, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report 7:30 EST

675. Sept. 29, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

674. Sept. 27, interviw with Kevin Barrett, AmericanFreedomRadio.com, NoLiesRadio.org:
http://TruthJihadRadio.blogspot.com, 2 pm PST

673. Sept. 19, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

672. Sept. 19, Interview on the Global Research News Hour with Michael Welch--check site for time and archive.

671. Sept. 18, interview with David Sierralupe, Occupy Radio, KWVA, 88.1 FM, Eugene

670. Sept. 15, interview with Niall Bradley, Sott Talk Radio, sott.net, 2 p.m. EST

669. Sept. 14, interview FDLBookSalon, firedoglake.com, 5pm EST

668. Sept. 10, "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

667. Sept. 9, interview with Ken MacDermotRoe and Del LaPietro, In Context Report, 9 am PST. Listen to archive here.

666. Sept 7, interview with Valerie Kirkgaard, WakingUpInAmerica.com, 6 am, PST. Listen here.

665. Sept. 6, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 12:30 pm PST

664. Sept. 5, discussion of how to bring public banking to Colorado on "It's the Economy, Stupid," KGNU, Boulder, 5 p.m. PST

663. Sept. 5, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, 8 a.m. PST

662. Sept. 3, interview (along with Elliott Spitzer?), "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST Listen to archive here.

661. Sept. 3, interview with Jeanette LaFeve, The People Speak, 6 pm PST

660. Aug. 25, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

659. Aug. 22, interview with Christopher Greene, AMTV Radio, simulcast in audio/video over GoogleHangouts and American Freedom Radio, 1 p.m. PST

658. Aug. 22, interview, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com,
CalChronicle.com, 3 pm PST

657. Aug. 21, interview with Merry and Burl Hall, blogtalkradio.com/envision-this, 5 pm PST

656. Aug. 21, interview with Lori Lundin, America's Radio News Network, 10:30 a.m. ET.

655. Aug. 16, interview with Sinclair Noe, Moneyradio.com, 4 pm PST

654. Aug. 15, interview with Justine Underhill, Prime Interest, Russia Today TV, 1:30 pm PST

653. Aug 14, interview with Jim Goddard, This Week in Money, 4 pm, PST. Listen to archive here, starting at minute 32.

652. Aug. 14, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, 10 a.m. PST

651. Aug. 14, interview with Chuck Morse, irnusaradio.com, 8 am, PST

650. Aug. 13, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV, Switzerland, 9 am PST

649. Aug 7-11, Madison Democracy conference, https://democracyconvention.org/

648. Aug. 6, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PST

647. Aug 5, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 9 am PST

646. Aug 3, interview with Diane Horn, Mind Over Matter show, KEXP radio, 90.3 FM, Seattle, 7:00 a.m. PST

645. July 31, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

644. July 28, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

643. July 2, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

642. July 2, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 12:30 EST.

641. June 30, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT. Listen to archive here.

640. June 24, interview on RT tv re student debt, 10:30 am PST

639. June 17, interview on The Andy Caldwell Show, 3:30 pm PST

638. June 16, interview with Jason Erb, 5 pm Pacific

637. June 13, interview with Paul Sanford, "Time 4 Hemp-LIVE," http://www.AmericanFreedomRadio.com, 10 am, PST

636. June 6 presentation with Jamie Brown at the Mt. Diablo Peace and Justice Center in Walnut Creek. Info at Favors.org, 7 to 9 pm

635. June 1, interview with Kris Welch, KPFA Los Angeles, 10 am PST

634. May 28, interview with Malihe Razazan, "Your Call" radio, KALW, San Francisco, 10 am PST.

633. May 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

632. May 23 interview with Simit Patel, InformedTrades.com (youtube) 3:30 pm PST

631. May 22, Thousand Oaks, 3 expert panel, "A Parachute For the Fiscal Cliff," University Village 2-4 pm

630. May 22, interview with Jack Rasmus, 11 am PST. Enjoy the interview here.

629. May 22, Guns and Butter show, KPFA, http://www.kpfa.org/archive/id/91790

628. May 14, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

627. May 13, live appearance on RTTV, 3 pm PST Watch it here.

626. May 8, interview with Valli Sharpe-Geisler, Silicon Valley Voice, KKUP, 3 pm PST

625. May 8, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST

624. May 4, interview, Latin Waves with Sylvia Richardson, 10 am PST

623. April 30, Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST

622. April 29, interview with Rob Kall, Bottom Up Radio, 9 am Pacific
Listen to archive here.

621. April 28, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

620. April 25, interview, the the Dr. Katherine Albrecht Show, 5 pm EDT

619. April 17, interview with Mike Harris, rense.com, 1 pm PDT

618. April 16th, speaker, Valley Democrats United (Democratic Party of San Fernando Valley), Van Nuys, Ca. 7-9pm

617. April 13, interview with Darren Weeks, Govern America, noon Eastern, listen here

616. April 9, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

615. April 6, phone conference, Justice Party, http://www.justicepartyusa.org/public_banking_conference_call, 9 a.m.

614. April 5, interview, Butler on Business, 11 a.m. EDT

613. April 3, interview with Michael Welch, Global Research News Hour, 8:30 a.m. PDT

612. April 2, interview with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 PDT. Listen here.

611. April 1, interview with Brannon Howse, www.worldviewradio.com, 11 a.m. PDT

610. April 1, interview with Scott Harris, Counterpoint,
WPKN Radio, 8:30 pm, ET Listen to archive here.

609. April 1, interview with Margaret Flowers and Kevin Zeese. Watch and listen to archive here, starting at minute 50. Articles based on the interview are at Truthout.org.

608. March 31, interview with Jason Erb, Exposing Faux Capitalism, Oracle Broadcasting, 11 a.m. Pacific

607. March 31, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT Listen to the archive here.

606. March 29, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

605. March 28, interview with Stan Monteith, radioliberty.com, 9 pm PDT

604. March 28, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PDT

603. March 27, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PdT.

602. March 27, interview with Jack Rasmus on PRN, 11 a.m. PDT

601. March 25, interview on the Richard Kaffenberger show, KTOX, Needles, CA. 3:15 PDT

600. March 22, newly available archived radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

599. March 22, interview with James Fetzer, The People Speak Radio, 5-7 pm PDT

598. March 22, interview , Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, Santa Fe, 10 a.m. MST

597. March 12, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

596. March 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PST

595. March 9, Interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 9:30 am PST

594. March 6, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6pm PST. Watch and listen here.

593. March 3, interview with Lateef Kareem Bey, Fix Your Mortgage Mess, 4 pm PST

592. March 2, Interview with Stuart Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 11 am PST

591. Feb. 27, interview with Jim Banks, KGNU, Boulder, 12 pm PST

590. Feb 27, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, 10 am PST

589. Feb. 25, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

588. Feb. 6, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 11 am PST. Listen to the archive here: http://talkdigitalnetwork.com/2013/02/this-week-in-money-70/

587. Feb. 4, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 11 am PST.

586. Jan. 31, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 5:00 pm PST

585. Jan. 27, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio
network, 10 am PST

584. Jan. 23, interview on KPFK, 8pm PST

583. Jan. 22, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

582. Jan. 3, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, Tampa, 3 pm EST

581. Jan. 2, interview, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 5 pm PST

--- 2012 ---

580. Dec. 27, video interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, listen and watch here.

579. Dec. 24, October talk at First Unitarian Church in Portland aired on KBOO radio, http://kboo.fm/, 8:00 am PST

578. Dec. 24, interview with Ron Daniels, the WWRL Morning Show with Mark Riley, wwrl1600.com, 5:05 am PST

577. Dec. 21, interview with Andy Caldwell, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com, KZSB AM1290 Santa Barbara / Ventura and KUHL AM1440 Santa Maria / San Luis Obispo, 3:30 pm PST

576. Dec. 20, interview with Fred Smart, aunetwork.tv, 9 pm EST

575. Dec. 19, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST. Listen here.

574. Dec. 19, interview with Dr. Jack Rasmus, Alternative Visions, Progressive Radio Network, 2 pm EST

573. Dec. 17, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 4 pm PST

572. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen here.

571. Dec. 14, interview with Craig Barnes, Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, 9 am PST Listen to the archive here.

570. December 9th, speaker, Mayo Arts Center (10 Mayo Street) in Portland, ME
http://mayostreetarts.org/about-us/where-we-are 7:30-9pm

569. Dec. 7, Vermont's New Economy conference, Vermont College of the Find Arts, Montpelier, VT, 9 am to 4 pm and reception at 4:30. $25
www.global-community.org/neweconomy to register

568. Dec. 5, speaker, Pennsylvania Public Bank Project's Forum on Public Banking, at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA, 7pm

567. Nov. 26-27, 3rd Annual World Conference on Riba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

566. Nov. 22, presentation before Royal Scottish Academy -- "A Public Bank for Scotland" (here), Riddle's Court, 322 Lawnmarket, Edinburgh EH1 2PG Scotland, 6 pm

565. Nov 8, Healthy Money Summit, speaking with Hazel Henderson at 1-2 pm PST, information here.

564. Sunday, Oct. 28, Keynote Speaker; The Buck Starts Here, 2:00pm, sponsored by the Kairos Occasional Speakers Series & OFOR, Kairos Milwaukie UCC, Milwaukie, OR.

563. Saturday, Oct. 27, Keynote Speaker; OFOR Saturday Symposium: The Buck Starts Here, 10am - 3pm, Molalla, OR

562. Friday-Sunday, Oct. 26-28, Keynote Speaker; Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation Fall Retreat - The Buck Starts Here, Camp Adams, Molalla, OR, Friday, 5pm- Sunday 12 noon

561. Friday, October 26, Invited Commentator; screening of “HEIST” (new documentary about the roots of the American economic crisis), sponsored by First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice Action Groups, Alliance for Democracy, KBOO, Move to Amend, 7:00pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

560. (Oct. 25-28, Bioneers Conference, Portland, OR)
Oct. 25, Keynote Speaker; sponsored by Portland Fellowship of Reconciliation (PFOR) and the First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice and Peace Action Groups, 7:00-8:30pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

559. Oct. 24, interview with Per Fagereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 9 am PST

558. Oct. 24, KPFA "Guns and Butter" interview. Listen to archived show here.

557. Oct. 21, speaker at BBQed Oysters and Beer Fundraiser Party for PBI, San Rafael, CA, 4 pm PST

556. Oct. 14, Live Gaiam tv interview appearance. Watch it here free at 7pm EST.

555. Oct. 12, interview with Matt Rothschild of The Progressive, 10 a.m. Central time

554. October 11-14, speaker, Economic Democracy Collaborative, Madison, Wisconsin

553. Oct. 11, radio interview with Norm Stockwell, WORT, 12 pm CST

552. Oct. 9, interview with Kevin Barrett, No Lies Radio, listen to archive here.

551. Oct. 8, interview, "Mountain Hours Revolution Radio" with Wayne Walton, on RBN, 12-1 pm PST

550. Oct. 7, interview with Lloyd D'Aguilar, "Looking Back Looking Forward", http://lookingbacklookingforward.com/, 2 pm EST

549. Sept. 26, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

548. Sept. 25, interview with Dr. Stanley Montieth, radioliberty.com, 3pm PST

547. Sept. 24, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PST.

546. Sept. 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

545. Sept. 17 interview along with Hazel Henderson, National Teach In for Occupy Wall Street, http://www.livestream.com/owshdtv 5pm EST

544. Sept. 10, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV (Switzerland), 7 am PST Watch and listen here

543. Sept. 7, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

542. Sept. 6, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

541. Aug 28, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST. Listen to archive here. And listen to excellent Meria Heller show here.

540. Aug 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, listen to archive here.

539. August 21, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com. Listen to archive here.

538. Aug 20, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

537. Aug 16, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

536. Aug. 14, interview, TheAndyCaldwellshow.com, 4:30pm PST

535. August 13, interview with American Free Press, 1 pm PST

534. July 24, interview along with Victoria Grant, The People Speak, 6pm, PST

533. July 24, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST

532. July 23, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6 pm PST

531. July 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7 pm PST

530. July 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

529. July 19, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

528. July 10-12, Speaker, Conference on Social Transformation, Faculty of Economics, Split University, Split Croatia

527. July 10, video interview with Max Keiser, the Keiser Report, on the ESM. Watch it here.

526. July 7, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 3 pm PST

525. July 6, video interview with Dr. Mercola, see it here.

524. June 23, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

523. June 21, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 4:30 pm PST

522. June 21, interview on the Gary Null Show, 9:20 am PST

521. June 18, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

520. June 17, interview with Bill Resnick, KBOO radio, 9 am PST

519. June 16 interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

518. June 9, interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, 9:45 am PST. Listen to archive here.

517. June 5, interview, Truth Quest With Melodee, KHEN radio, 7pm PST

516. June 2, interview about Web of Debt, Our Common Ground,http://www.blogtalkradio.com/OCG, 7pm PST

515. June 1, interview with Robert Stark, The Stark Truth listen here.

514. Newly available video of interview on "Moral Politics" -- see it here

513. May 30, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, ll am PST

512. May 28, interview with Pedro Gatos, "Bringing Light into Darkness", KOOP.ORG, 6 pm CST

511. May 24, interview, Make It Plain With Mark Thompson, SiriusXM Satellite Radio, 2pm PST

510. May 20, interview, Women's View Radio, blogtalkradio.com, 10 am Central Time. Listen here.

509. May 13, interview, www.Blogtalkradio.com/fixyourmortgagemess, 4:15 pm PST

508. May 12, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST Listen here.

507. May 9, seminar, Re-imagining Money and Credit, Art bldg. rm 103, El Camino college, Torrance, Ca. 5-7:30 pm

506. May 8, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 9 am EST

505. May 7, radio discussion on "The Myth of Austerity", Connect the Dots, KPFK Los Angeles, 7 am PST. Listen here.

504. May 4, interview The Unsolicited Opinion, republicbroadcasting.org, 8 am PST

503. April 27-28, speaker, Public Banking Institute Conference, Friends Center, Philadelphia. Listen here.

502. April 25, speaker Global Teach-In (globalteachin.com), 12 noon EST

501. April 17, Interview with Leo Steel, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/lasteelshoworg, 8:30 pm EST. Listen here.. 31 minutes in.

500. April 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

499. April 14, interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report

498. April 10th-12th Speaker at Claremont Conference, “Creating Money in a Finite World” Claremont, CA . See video here.

497. April 5, interview , This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com) 12:30 PST. Listen to the archive here.

496. April 3, speaker at COMER with Paul Hellyer, "Escape From the Web of Debt," Toronto, 7:30 pm

495. March 27, speaker on "Why are we so Broke? New ways to look at the Finances of our State and City," League of Women Voters luncheon, San Diego, 12 noon

494.5 March 24, radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

494. March 17, speaker via skype, SCADS conference, London

493. March 15, interview with Per Fagereng, Fight the Empire, KBOO radio, 9:30 am PST

492. March 15, speaker, San Rafael City Hall 6 pm

491. March 13, speaker at Sergio Lub's house, Walnut Creek, info at Favors.org, 6pm

490. March 11, speaker, TedxNewWallStreet. See it here.

489. March 10, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

488. March 6, interview with Melinda Pillsbury-Foster, http://radio.rumormillnews.com/podcast/, 11 am PST

487. Feb. 25, interview with Martin Andelman, http://www.mandelman.ml-implode.com, 9:30 am PST

486. Feb. 25, interview, This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com), 3 pm PST

485. Feb. 25, interview on CIVL Radio, Latin Waves, How Greece Could Take Down Wall Street, 11:30am PST

484. Feb 23, interview with Thomas Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

483. Feb. 17, featured speaker, Public Banking in America weekly call, 9 am PST

482. Feb. 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

481. Feb. 8, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

480. Feb. 7, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST; listen to archive here

479. Feb. 6, participant, Occupiers and Wells Fargo Executives Gather to Discuss the American Foreclosure Crisis, The Center of Nonprofit Management at California Endowment Building 1000 N. Alameda, Los Angeles, meeting 3 pm and press conference 5:30 pm

478. Feb. 2, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

477. Feb. 2, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, naturalnewsradio.com. Listen to archive here

476. Jan. 31, interview, Liberty Coins and Precious Metals, 9 am PST

475. Jan. 27, interview KPFA, Project Censored, 8:30 am PST

474. Jan. 27, FILMS4CHANGE-INSIDEJOB, panel speaker, Edye Second Space, Santa Monica Performing Arts Center, 7:30 pm

473. Jan 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7:30 pm PST. Listen live here.

472. Jan. 20, interview with Mike Harris, The Republic Broadcasting Network, 7 am PST

471. Jan. 16, interview with Rob Lorei, WMNF fm, Tampa, 2 pm PST

470. Jan. 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

469. Jan. 11, interview with Jeff Rense, rense.com, 8pm PST

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--2014--

761. Oct. 6-9, speaker, Praxis Peace Institute conference, THE ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABILITY-Emerging Models for a Healthy Planet, Cowell Theater, Fort Mason, San Francisco

760. July 29-Aug. 5. Moving Beyond Capitalism conference, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

759. July 9, speaker, 2014 Annual Conference of the Council of Georgist Organizations, Inc., Radisson Newport Beach Hotel, near the Orange County John Wayne Airport, 9:15 a.m. PT

758. May 26, interview, Wealth DNA Radio Show, Blog Talk Radio, wealthdna.us, noon EST

757. May 10, United We Stand Festival, Pauley Pavilion, UCLA,
https://unitedwestandfest.com/confirmed-guests/

756. May 1, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 9 a.m. PDT

755. April 29, moderator, Great Minds #66 with Nomi Prins, Los Angeles, CA., 7 pm PT

754. April 23, Ellen interviews Nomi Prins on It's Our Money. Listen to archive here.

753. April 21, interview with Robert Stark and Jeff Crow, Valley Talk Live, centralvalleytalk.com, Fresno, 4:30 PT

752. April 17, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow, 10 pm EST

751. April 17, interview with Greg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 EST

750. April 8, It's Our Money with Ellen Brown, interiews Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers. Listen to archive here.

749. April 8, interview with Alan Butler, Butler on Business, Liberty Express Radio, 11:30 AM EDT

748. April 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 9 a.m. PDT

747. April 3, interview with James Banks, KGNU radio, Boulder, CO, 5 p.m. PT

746. April 2, interview, WHDTWorldNews, Nextnewsnetwork.com, 10:30 a. m. PDT

745. March 26, 1 pm PDT, It’s Our Money with Ellen Brown. Ellen interviews Prof. ROBERT HOCKETT--fascinating background material for understanding the banks' role in the foreclosure mess and the eminent domain solution. Listen to the archive here.

744. March 24, interview with Kevin Zeese JD and Margaret Flowers MD, Clearing the FOG on We Act Radio, 1480 AM Washington, DC, 8 a.m. PDT

743. March 23rd, "Banking for the People—Not for Wall Street," Agenda for a Prophetic Faith Lecture Series, Claremont United Methodist Church, 211 W. Foothill Blvd., Claremont, CA 91711, http://www.claremontumc.org/, 7 pm PT

742. Apr. 13, Interview with Chris Moore, KDKA Pittsburgh, 5 pm EST

741. March 18, 2 pm, Democratic Club, Friendly Valley Conference Room, Newhall, CA.

740. March 13, interview with Fred Smart, American Underground Network, 8 pm, CDT

739. March 12, 12 pm PDT, It's Our Money radio show with Ellen Brown, featuring Prof. TIM CANOVA on the Federal Reserve. Listen to archive here.

738. March 4, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

737. Feb. 23, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

736. Feb 20, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 3 pm, PST

735. Feb. 17, interview, Strike Debt Bay Area, KPFA, Berkeley, 2 pm (?) PST

734. Feb16, interview with Gary Dubin, The Foreclosure Hour (http://www.foreclosurehour.com/the-host.html), 5 pm PST

733. Feb. 11, interview with Clint Richardson, RBN 5 pm PST

732. Feb 9, interview with Stephen Golden, DEFENDING THE AMERICAN DREAM, KABC Los Angeles, 6 am, PST Listen to the archive here.

731. Feb. 6, interview, Move to Amend Reports, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/movetoamend, 5 pm PST

730. Feb. 5, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 9:30 am PST

729. January 30, interview, Kerry Lutz - Financial Survival Network, 12 pm EST

728. January 30, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

727. January 29, interview on Latin Waves, 8 pm PST

726. January 28, Green Party Shadow Cabinet response to State of the Union Speech. http://www.livestream.com/greenpartyus 6 pm PST

725. January 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST. Listen here.

724. January 23, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, 12 noon PST. Listen here.

723. January 22, interview with Utrice Leid, "Leid Stories,", PRN.FM, 1 pm EST

722. January 21, interview, Independent Underground Radio LIVE, 9:15 PST. Listen here.

721. January 12, Open Forum with Green Party candidates Luis Rodriguez, Laura Wells and Ellen Brown, hosted by LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) 11277 GARDEN GROVE BLVD., Garden Grove, CA. 2-4 pm

720. January 11, interview with Bill Still on running for California Treasurer. Watch it here. And see another one here.

719. January 8, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, 12 noon PST. Listen here. (It's the one labelled "Take the Fed Reserve Public.")

718. Jan 7, interview, The Burt Cohen Show, 12 noon ET

--2013--

717. Dec. 30, interview, Stuart Vener Tells It Like It Is, see http://stuartvener.com for stations, 11:30 am EST

716. Dec. 26, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow and Ralph Fucetola, 10 pm EST

715. Dec. 21, interview, KPRO Radio San Francisco, 9:30 am PST

714. Dec. 18, interview, The Power Hour with Joyce Riley, 8 a.m. CT

713. Dec. 18, interview, Unwrapped Radio, WRFG, http://www.tuneinradio.com/, 12:40 EST

712. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST, listen here.
711. Dec. 15, presentation, A Public Bank for Mendocino, at the Crown Hall in Mendocino, Ca., 7 pm

710. Dec. 15, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Mendocino Environmental Center
106 West Standley, Ukiah, CA 95482, 2 pm

709. Dec. 14, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Little Lake Grange, Willits, Ca. 7 pm

708. Dec. 13, interview on All About Money, KZYX radio, 9 a.m. PST

707. Dec. 13, interview, Radio Islam, WCEV 1450 AM, 12:05 pm, CST

706. Dec. 12, appearance with Doug McKenty, "The Shift," Mendocino TV, 4:30 pm PST

705. Dec. 11, interview on WHDT World News, http://NNN.is/on-WHDT, 5:30 and 11:00 pm EST. Watch the archive here.

704. Dec. 11, interview, WORT Community Radio, Madison, Wisconsin, 6:10 a.m. PST

703. Dec. 11, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 10:30 PST

702. Dec. 9, UnWrapped Radio, Atlanta, 1 pm PST.

701. Dec. 9, GOHarrison, KPFK Los Angeles, 3:30 pm PST.

700. Dec. 9, interview, Air Cascadia show, KBOO radio, Portland, 10 am PST

699. Dec. 5, interview, WHDT World News TV, 2 pm PST

698. Dec. 4, interview with David Swanson, talknationradio, 7pm PST

697. Dec. 4, interview with Rob Kall, The Rob Kall Bottom-Up Radio Show, 1360 AM, 7:30 pm EST

696. Dec. 3, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

695. Dec. 2, interview with Val Muchowski, Women's Voices, KZYX, 7 p.m. PST

694. Nov. 29, interview with Gregg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 PST

693. Nov. 16, interview This is Hell! radio show, WNUR 89.3 fm, thisishell.com/live, 11.20 a.m. EST. Listen to archive here

692. Nov. 15, interview with George Berry, The Financial News Network Show, truthfrequencyradio.com, 1 pm PST

691. Nov. 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 4 pm PSTf

690. Nov. 14, interview with Neil Foster, Reality Bytes show, Awake Radio (UK), Shazziz Radio (US), 8 pm UK time.

689. Nov. 13, interview with Bonnie Faulkner, KPFA, Los Angeles. Listen to archive here.

688. Nov. 12, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

687. Nov. 11, interview, Between the Lines News Magazine, WPKN radio, Bridgeport, CT, 9 p.m. ET. Listen to archive here

686. Nov. 10, skype participant, forum at the Putrajaya International Islamic Arts and Cultural Festival, "Global Economic and Monetary Crisis: What Needs to be Done?" Putrajaya, Malaysia, 11 a.m. MYT, 7 pm, Nov. 9 PST

685. Nov. 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

684. Oct. 31, interview with Voice of Russia radio, American edition, 2:30 pm, CET (Central Europe Time.) Listen to archive here.

683. Oct. 23, interview with Daniel Estulin on RT tv

682. Oct. 16, interview with Per Fereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 11 am PST

681. Oct. 15, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 7-9 PM, Hudson Bay Hotel, Athlone, Ireland.

680. Oct. 14, presentation, Cork, Ireland

679. Oct. 12, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 2-4 PM, Springfield Hotel in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland. Information on these three events here.

678. October 4, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 2:30 pm, PST

677. Oct. 3, interview with Joyce Riley, the Power Hour. Listen to archive here.

676. Oct. 1, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report 7:30 EST

675. Sept. 29, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

674. Sept. 27, interviw with Kevin Barrett, AmericanFreedomRadio.com, NoLiesRadio.org:
http://TruthJihadRadio.blogspot.com, 2 pm PST

673. Sept. 19, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

672. Sept. 19, Interview on the Global Research News Hour with Michael Welch--check site for time and archive.

671. Sept. 18, interview with David Sierralupe, Occupy Radio, KWVA, 88.1 FM, Eugene

670. Sept. 15, interview with Niall Bradley, Sott Talk Radio, sott.net, 2 p.m. EST

669. Sept. 14, interview FDLBookSalon, firedoglake.com, 5pm EST

668. Sept. 10, "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

667. Sept. 9, interview with Ken MacDermotRoe and Del LaPietro, In Context Report, 9 am PST. Listen to archive here.

666. Sept 7, interview with Valerie Kirkgaard, WakingUpInAmerica.com, 6 am, PST. Listen here.

665. Sept. 6, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 12:30 pm PST

664. Sept. 5, discussion of how to bring public banking to Colorado on "It's the Economy, Stupid," KGNU, Boulder, 5 p.m. PST

663. Sept. 5, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, 8 a.m. PST

662. Sept. 3, interview (along with Elliott Spitzer?), "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST Listen to archive here.

661. Sept. 3, interview with Jeanette LaFeve, The People Speak, 6 pm PST

660. Aug. 25, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

659. Aug. 22, interview with Christopher Greene, AMTV Radio, simulcast in audio/video over GoogleHangouts and American Freedom Radio, 1 p.m. PST

658. Aug. 22, interview, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com,
CalChronicle.com, 3 pm PST

657. Aug. 21, interview with Merry and Burl Hall, blogtalkradio.com/envision-this, 5 pm PST

656. Aug. 21, interview with Lori Lundin, America's Radio News Network, 10:30 a.m. ET.

655. Aug. 16, interview with Sinclair Noe, Moneyradio.com, 4 pm PST

654. Aug. 15, interview with Justine Underhill, Prime Interest, Russia Today TV, 1:30 pm PST

653. Aug 14, interview with Jim Goddard, This Week in Money, 4 pm, PST. Listen to archive here, starting at minute 32.

652. Aug. 14, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, 10 a.m. PST

651. Aug. 14, interview with Chuck Morse, irnusaradio.com, 8 am, PST

650. Aug. 13, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV, Switzerland, 9 am PST

649. Aug 7-11, Madison Democracy conference, https://democracyconvention.org/

648. Aug. 6, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PST

647. Aug 5, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 9 am PST

646. Aug 3, interview with Diane Horn, Mind Over Matter show, KEXP radio, 90.3 FM, Seattle, 7:00 a.m. PST

645. July 31, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

644. July 28, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

643. July 2, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

642. July 2, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 12:30 EST.

641. June 30, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT. Listen to archive here.

640. June 24, interview on RT tv re student debt, 10:30 am PST

639. June 17, interview on The Andy Caldwell Show, 3:30 pm PST

638. June 16, interview with Jason Erb, 5 pm Pacific

637. June 13, interview with Paul Sanford, "Time 4 Hemp-LIVE," http://www.AmericanFreedomRadio.com, 10 am, PST

636. June 6 presentation with Jamie Brown at the Mt. Diablo Peace and Justice Center in Walnut Creek. Info at Favors.org, 7 to 9 pm

635. June 1, interview with Kris Welch, KPFA Los Angeles, 10 am PST

634. May 28, interview with Malihe Razazan, "Your Call" radio, KALW, San Francisco, 10 am PST.

633. May 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

632. May 23 interview with Simit Patel, InformedTrades.com (youtube) 3:30 pm PST

631. May 22, Thousand Oaks, 3 expert panel, "A Parachute For the Fiscal Cliff," University Village 2-4 pm

630. May 22, interview with Jack Rasmus, 11 am PST. Enjoy the interview here.

629. May 22, Guns and Butter show, KPFA, http://www.kpfa.org/archive/id/91790

628. May 14, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

627. May 13, live appearance on RTTV, 3 pm PST Watch it here.

626. May 8, interview with Valli Sharpe-Geisler, Silicon Valley Voice, KKUP, 3 pm PST

625. May 8, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST

624. May 4, interview, Latin Waves with Sylvia Richardson, 10 am PST

623. April 30, Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST

622. April 29, interview with Rob Kall, Bottom Up Radio, 9 am Pacific
Listen to archive here.

621. April 28, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

620. April 25, interview, the the Dr. Katherine Albrecht Show, 5 pm EDT

619. April 17, interview with Mike Harris, rense.com, 1 pm PDT

618. April 16th, speaker, Valley Democrats United (Democratic Party of San Fernando Valley), Van Nuys, Ca. 7-9pm

617. April 13, interview with Darren Weeks, Govern America, noon Eastern, listen here

616. April 9, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

615. April 6, phone conference, Justice Party, http://www.justicepartyusa.org/public_banking_conference_call, 9 a.m.

614. April 5, interview, Butler on Business, 11 a.m. EDT

613. April 3, interview with Michael Welch, Global Research News Hour, 8:30 a.m. PDT

612. April 2, interview with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 PDT. Listen here.

611. April 1, interview with Brannon Howse, www.worldviewradio.com, 11 a.m. PDT

610. April 1, interview with Scott Harris, Counterpoint,
WPKN Radio, 8:30 pm, ET Listen to archive here.

609. April 1, interview with Margaret Flowers and Kevin Zeese. Watch and listen to archive here, starting at minute 50. Articles based on the interview are at Truthout.org.

608. March 31, interview with Jason Erb, Exposing Faux Capitalism, Oracle Broadcasting, 11 a.m. Pacific

607. March 31, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT Listen to the archive here.

606. March 29, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

605. March 28, interview with Stan Monteith, radioliberty.com, 9 pm PDT

604. March 28, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PDT

603. March 27, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PdT.

602. March 27, interview with Jack Rasmus on PRN, 11 a.m. PDT

601. March 25, interview on the Richard Kaffenberger show, KTOX, Needles, CA. 3:15 PDT

600. March 22, newly available archived radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

599. March 22, interview with James Fetzer, The People Speak Radio, 5-7 pm PDT

598. March 22, interview , Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, Santa Fe, 10 a.m. MST

597. March 12, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

596. March 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PST

595. March 9, Interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 9:30 am PST

594. March 6, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6pm PST. Watch and listen here.

593. March 3, interview with Lateef Kareem Bey, Fix Your Mortgage Mess, 4 pm PST

592. March 2, Interview with Stuart Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 11 am PST

591. Feb. 27, interview with Jim Banks, KGNU, Boulder, 12 pm PST

590. Feb 27, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, 10 am PST

589. Feb. 25, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

588. Feb. 6, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 11 am PST. Listen to the archive here: http://talkdigitalnetwork.com/2013/02/this-week-in-money-70/

587. Feb. 4, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 11 am PST.

586. Jan. 31, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 5:00 pm PST

585. Jan. 27, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio
network, 10 am PST

584. Jan. 23, interview on KPFK, 8pm PST

583. Jan. 22, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

582. Jan. 3, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, Tampa, 3 pm EST

581. Jan. 2, interview, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 5 pm PST

--- 2012 ---

580. Dec. 27, video interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, listen and watch here.

579. Dec. 24, October talk at First Unitarian Church in Portland aired on KBOO radio, http://kboo.fm/, 8:00 am PST

578. Dec. 24, interview with Ron Daniels, the WWRL Morning Show with Mark Riley, wwrl1600.com, 5:05 am PST

577. Dec. 21, interview with Andy Caldwell, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com, KZSB AM1290 Santa Barbara / Ventura and KUHL AM1440 Santa Maria / San Luis Obispo, 3:30 pm PST

576. Dec. 20, interview with Fred Smart, aunetwork.tv, 9 pm EST

575. Dec. 19, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST. Listen here.

574. Dec. 19, interview with Dr. Jack Rasmus, Alternative Visions, Progressive Radio Network, 2 pm EST

573. Dec. 17, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 4 pm PST

572. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen here.

571. Dec. 14, interview with Craig Barnes, Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, 9 am PST Listen to the archive here.

570. December 9th, speaker, Mayo Arts Center (10 Mayo Street) in Portland, ME
http://mayostreetarts.org/about-us/where-we-are 7:30-9pm

569. Dec. 7, Vermont's New Economy conference, Vermont College of the Find Arts, Montpelier, VT, 9 am to 4 pm and reception at 4:30. $25
www.global-community.org/neweconomy to register

568. Dec. 5, speaker, Pennsylvania Public Bank Project's Forum on Public Banking, at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA, 7pm

567. Nov. 26-27, 3rd Annual World Conference on Riba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

566. Nov. 22, presentation before Royal Scottish Academy -- "A Public Bank for Scotland" (here), Riddle's Court, 322 Lawnmarket, Edinburgh EH1 2PG Scotland, 6 pm

565. Nov 8, Healthy Money Summit, speaking with Hazel Henderson at 1-2 pm PST, information here.

564. Sunday, Oct. 28, Keynote Speaker; The Buck Starts Here, 2:00pm, sponsored by the Kairos Occasional Speakers Series & OFOR, Kairos Milwaukie UCC, Milwaukie, OR.

563. Saturday, Oct. 27, Keynote Speaker; OFOR Saturday Symposium: The Buck Starts Here, 10am - 3pm, Molalla, OR

562. Friday-Sunday, Oct. 26-28, Keynote Speaker; Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation Fall Retreat - The Buck Starts Here, Camp Adams, Molalla, OR, Friday, 5pm- Sunday 12 noon

561. Friday, October 26, Invited Commentator; screening of “HEIST” (new documentary about the roots of the American economic crisis), sponsored by First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice Action Groups, Alliance for Democracy, KBOO, Move to Amend, 7:00pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

560. (Oct. 25-28, Bioneers Conference, Portland, OR)
Oct. 25, Keynote Speaker; sponsored by Portland Fellowship of Reconciliation (PFOR) and the First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice and Peace Action Groups, 7:00-8:30pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

559. Oct. 24, interview with Per Fagereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 9 am PST

558. Oct. 24, KPFA "Guns and Butter" interview. Listen to archived show here.

557. Oct. 21, speaker at BBQed Oysters and Beer Fundraiser Party for PBI, San Rafael, CA, 4 pm PST

556. Oct. 14, Live Gaiam tv interview appearance. Watch it here free at 7pm EST.

555. Oct. 12, interview with Matt Rothschild of The Progressive, 10 a.m. Central time

554. October 11-14, speaker, Economic Democracy Collaborative, Madison, Wisconsin

553. Oct. 11, radio interview with Norm Stockwell, WORT, 12 pm CST

552. Oct. 9, interview with Kevin Barrett, No Lies Radio, listen to archive here.

551. Oct. 8, interview, "Mountain Hours Revolution Radio" with Wayne Walton, on RBN, 12-1 pm PST

550. Oct. 7, interview with Lloyd D'Aguilar, "Looking Back Looking Forward", http://lookingbacklookingforward.com/, 2 pm EST

549. Sept. 26, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

548. Sept. 25, interview with Dr. Stanley Montieth, radioliberty.com, 3pm PST

547. Sept. 24, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PST.

546. Sept. 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

545. Sept. 17 interview along with Hazel Henderson, National Teach In for Occupy Wall Street, http://www.livestream.com/owshdtv 5pm EST

544. Sept. 10, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV (Switzerland), 7 am PST Watch and listen here

543. Sept. 7, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

542. Sept. 6, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

541. Aug 28, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST. Listen to archive here. And listen to excellent Meria Heller show here.

540. Aug 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, listen to archive here.

539. August 21, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com. Listen to archive here.

538. Aug 20, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

537. Aug 16, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

536. Aug. 14, interview, TheAndyCaldwellshow.com, 4:30pm PST

535. August 13, interview with American Free Press, 1 pm PST

534. July 24, interview along with Victoria Grant, The People Speak, 6pm, PST

533. July 24, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST

532. July 23, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6 pm PST

531. July 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7 pm PST

530. July 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

529. July 19, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

528. July 10-12, Speaker, Conference on Social Transformation, Faculty of Economics, Split University, Split Croatia

527. July 10, video interview with Max Keiser, the Keiser Report, on the ESM. Watch it here.

526. July 7, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 3 pm PST

525. July 6, video interview with Dr. Mercola, see it here.

524. June 23, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

523. June 21, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 4:30 pm PST

522. June 21, interview on the Gary Null Show, 9:20 am PST

521. June 18, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

520. June 17, interview with Bill Resnick, KBOO radio, 9 am PST

519. June 16 interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

518. June 9, interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, 9:45 am PST. Listen to archive here.

517. June 5, interview, Truth Quest With Melodee, KHEN radio, 7pm PST

516. June 2, interview about Web of Debt, Our Common Ground,http://www.blogtalkradio.com/OCG, 7pm PST

515. June 1, interview with Robert Stark, The Stark Truth listen here.

514. Newly available video of interview on "Moral Politics" -- see it here

513. May 30, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, ll am PST

512. May 28, interview with Pedro Gatos, "Bringing Light into Darkness", KOOP.ORG, 6 pm CST

511. May 24, interview, Make It Plain With Mark Thompson, SiriusXM Satellite Radio, 2pm PST

510. May 20, interview, Women's View Radio, blogtalkradio.com, 10 am Central Time. Listen here.

509. May 13, interview, www.Blogtalkradio.com/fixyourmortgagemess, 4:15 pm PST

508. May 12, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST Listen here.

507. May 9, seminar, Re-imagining Money and Credit, Art bldg. rm 103, El Camino college, Torrance, Ca. 5-7:30 pm

506. May 8, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 9 am EST

505. May 7, radio discussion on "The Myth of Austerity", Connect the Dots, KPFK Los Angeles, 7 am PST. Listen here.

504. May 4, interview The Unsolicited Opinion, republicbroadcasting.org, 8 am PST

503. April 27-28, speaker, Public Banking Institute Conference, Friends Center, Philadelphia. Listen here.

502. April 25, speaker Global Teach-In (globalteachin.com), 12 noon EST

501. April 17, Interview with Leo Steel, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/lasteelshoworg, 8:30 pm EST. Listen here.. 31 minutes in.

500. April 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

499. April 14, interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report

498. April 10th-12th Speaker at Claremont Conference, “Creating Money in a Finite World” Claremont, CA . See video here.

497. April 5, interview , This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com) 12:30 PST. Listen to the archive here.

496. April 3, speaker at COMER with Paul Hellyer, "Escape From the Web of Debt," Toronto, 7:30 pm

495. March 27, speaker on "Why are we so Broke? New ways to look at the Finances of our State and City," League of Women Voters luncheon, San Diego, 12 noon

494.5 March 24, radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

494. March 17, speaker via skype, SCADS conference, London

493. March 15, interview with Per Fagereng, Fight the Empire, KBOO radio, 9:30 am PST

492. March 15, speaker, San Rafael City Hall 6 pm

491. March 13, speaker at Sergio Lub's house, Walnut Creek, info at Favors.org, 6pm

490. March 11, speaker, TedxNewWallStreet. See it here.

489. March 10, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

488. March 6, interview with Melinda Pillsbury-Foster, http://radio.rumormillnews.com/podcast/, 11 am PST

487. Feb. 25, interview with Martin Andelman, http://www.mandelman.ml-implode.com, 9:30 am PST

486. Feb. 25, interview, This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com), 3 pm PST

485. Feb. 25, interview on CIVL Radio, Latin Waves, How Greece Could Take Down Wall Street, 11:30am PST

484. Feb 23, interview with Thomas Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

483. Feb. 17, featured speaker, Public Banking in America weekly call, 9 am PST

482. Feb. 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

481. Feb. 8, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

480. Feb. 7, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST; listen to archive here

479. Feb. 6, participant, Occupiers and Wells Fargo Executives Gather to Discuss the American Foreclosure Crisis, The Center of Nonprofit Management at California Endowment Building 1000 N. Alameda, Los Angeles, meeting 3 pm and press conference 5:30 pm

478. Feb. 2, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

477. Feb. 2, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, naturalnewsradio.com. Listen to archive here

476. Jan. 31, interview, Liberty Coins and Precious Metals, 9 am PST

475. Jan. 27, interview KPFA, Project Censored, 8:30 am PST

474. Jan. 27, FILMS4CHANGE-INSIDEJOB, panel speaker, Edye Second Space, Santa Monica Performing Arts Center, 7:30 pm

473. Jan 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7:30 pm PST. Listen live here.

472. Jan. 20, interview with Mike Harris, The Republic Broadcasting Network, 7 am PST

471. Jan. 16, interview with Rob Lorei, WMNF fm, Tampa, 2 pm PST

470. Jan. 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

469. Jan. 11, interview with Jeff Rense, rense.com, 8pm PST

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Prosperity For Main Street, Not Wall Street

--2014--

735. July 29-Aug. 5. Moving Beyond Capitalism conference, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

734. Feb. 23, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

733. Feb16, interview with Gary Dubin, The Foreclosure Hour (http://www.foreclosurehour.com/the-host.html), 5 pm PST

732. Feb 9, interview with Stephen Golden, DEFENDING THE AMERICAN DREAM, KABC Los Angeles, 6 am, PST

731. Feb. 6, interview, Move to Amend Reports, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/movetoamend, 5 pm PST

730. Feb. 5, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 9:30 am PST

729. January 30, interview, Kerry Lutz - Financial Survival Network, 12 pm EST

728. January 30, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

727. January 29, interview on Latin Waves, 8 pm PST

726. January 28, Green Party Shadow Cabinet response to State of the Union Speech. http://www.livestream.com/greenpartyus 6 pm PST

725. January 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST. Listen here.

724. January 23, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, 12 noon PST. Listen here.

723. January 22, interview with Utrice Leid, "Leid Stories,", PRN.FM, 1 pm EST

722. January 21, interview, Independent Underground Radio LIVE, 9:15 PST. Listen here.

721. January 12, Open Forum with Green Party candidates Luis Rodriguez, Laura Wells and Ellen Brown, hosted by LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) 11277 GARDEN GROVE BLVD., Garden Grove, CA. 2-4 pm

720. January 11, interview with Bill Still on running for California Treasurer. Watch it here.

719. January 8, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, 12 noon PST. Listen here. (It's the one labelled "Take the Fed Reserve Public.")

718. Jan 7, interview, The Burt Cohen Show, 12 noon ET

--2013--

717. Dec. 30, interview, Stuart Vener Tells It Like It Is, see http://stuartvener.com for stations, 11:30 am EST

716. Dec. 26, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow and Ralph Fucetola, 10 pm EST

715. Dec. 21, interview, KPRO Radio San Francisco, 9:30 am PST

714. Dec. 18, interview, The Power Hour with Joyce Riley, 8 a.m. CT

713. Dec. 18, interview, Unwrapped Radio, WRFG, http://www.tuneinradio.com/, 12:40 EST

712. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST, listen here.
711. Dec. 15, presentation, A Public Bank for Mendocino, at the Crown Hall in Mendocino, Ca., 7 pm

710. Dec. 15, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Mendocino Environmental Center
106 West Standley, Ukiah, CA 95482, 2 pm

709. Dec. 14, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Little Lake Grange, Willits, Ca. 7 pm

708. Dec. 13, interview on All About Money, KZYX radio, 9 a.m. PST

707. Dec. 13, interview, Radio Islam, WCEV 1450 AM, 12:05 pm, CST

706. Dec. 12, appearance with Doug McKenty, "The Shift," Mendocino TV, 4:30 pm PST

705. Dec. 11, interview on WHDT World News, http://NNN.is/on-WHDT, 5:30 and 11:00 pm EST. Watch the archive here.

704. Dec. 11, interview, WORT Community Radio, Madison, Wisconsin, 6:10 a.m. PST

703. Dec. 11, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 10:30 PST

702. Dec. 9, UnWrapped Radio, Atlanta, 1 pm PST.

701. Dec. 9, GOHarrison, KPFK Los Angeles, 3:30 pm PST.

700. Dec. 9, interview, Air Cascadia show, KBOO radio, Portland, 10 am PST

699. Dec. 5, interview, WHDT World News TV, 2 pm PST

698. Dec. 4, interview with David Swanson, talknationradio, 7pm PST

697. Dec. 4, interview with Rob Kall, The Rob Kall Bottom-Up Radio Show, 1360 AM, 7:30 pm EST

696. Dec. 3, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

695. Dec. 2, interview with Val Muchowski, Women's Voices, KZYX, 7 p.m. PST

694. Nov. 29, interview with Gregg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 PST

693. Nov. 16, interview This is Hell! radio show, WNUR 89.3 fm, thisishell.com/live, 11.20 a.m. EST. Listen to archive here

692. Nov. 15, interview with George Berry, The Financial News Network Show, truthfrequencyradio.com, 1 pm PST

691. Nov. 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 4 pm PSTf

690. Nov. 14, interview with Neil Foster, Reality Bytes show, Awake Radio (UK), Shazziz Radio (US), 8 pm UK time.

689. Nov. 13, interview with Bonnie Faulkner, KPFA, Los Angeles. Listen to archive here.

688. Nov. 12, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

687. Nov. 11, interview, Between the Lines News Magazine, WPKN radio, Bridgeport, CT, 9 p.m. ET. Listen to archive here

686. Nov. 10, skype participant, forum at the Putrajaya International Islamic Arts and Cultural Festival, "Global Economic and Monetary Crisis: What Needs to be Done?" Putrajaya, Malaysia, 11 a.m. MYT, 7 pm, Nov. 9 PST

685. Nov. 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

684. Oct. 31, interview with Voice of Russia radio, American edition, 2:30 pm, CET (Central Europe Time.) Listen to archive here.

683. Oct. 23, interview with Daniel Estulin on RT tv

682. Oct. 16, interview with Per Fereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 11 am PST

681. Oct. 15, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 7-9 PM, Hudson Bay Hotel, Athlone, Ireland.

680. Oct. 14, presentation, Cork, Ireland

679. Oct. 12, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 2-4 PM, Springfield Hotel in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland. Information on these three events here.

678. October 4, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 2:30 pm, PST

677. Oct. 3, interview with Joyce Riley, the Power Hour. Listen to archive here.

676. Oct. 1, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report 7:30 EST

675. Sept. 29, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

674. Sept. 27, interviw with Kevin Barrett, AmericanFreedomRadio.com, NoLiesRadio.org:
http://TruthJihadRadio.blogspot.com, 2 pm PST

673. Sept. 19, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

672. Sept. 19, Interview on the Global Research News Hour with Michael Welch--check site for time and archive.

671. Sept. 18, interview with David Sierralupe, Occupy Radio, KWVA, 88.1 FM, Eugene

670. Sept. 15, interview with Niall Bradley, Sott Talk Radio, sott.net, 2 p.m. EST

669. Sept. 14, interview FDLBookSalon, firedoglake.com, 5pm EST

668. Sept. 10, "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

667. Sept. 9, interview with Ken MacDermotRoe and Del LaPietro, In Context Report, 9 am PST. Listen to archive here.

666. Sept 7, interview with Valerie Kirkgaard, WakingUpInAmerica.com, 6 am, PST. Listen here.

665. Sept. 6, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 12:30 pm PST

664. Sept. 5, discussion of how to bring public banking to Colorado on "It's the Economy, Stupid," KGNU, Boulder, 5 p.m. PST

663. Sept. 5, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, 8 a.m. PST

662. Sept. 3, interview (along with Elliott Spitzer?), "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST Listen to archive here.

661. Sept. 3, interview with Jeanette LaFeve, The People Speak, 6 pm PST

660. Aug. 25, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

659. Aug. 22, interview with Christopher Greene, AMTV Radio, simulcast in audio/video over GoogleHangouts and American Freedom Radio, 1 p.m. PST

658. Aug. 22, interview, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com,
CalChronicle.com, 3 pm PST

657. Aug. 21, interview with Merry and Burl Hall, blogtalkradio.com/envision-this, 5 pm PST

656. Aug. 21, interview with Lori Lundin, America's Radio News Network, 10:30 a.m. ET.

655. Aug. 16, interview with Sinclair Noe, Moneyradio.com, 4 pm PST

654. Aug. 15, interview with Justine Underhill, Prime Interest, Russia Today TV, 1:30 pm PST

653. Aug 14, interview with Jim Goddard, This Week in Money, 4 pm, PST. Listen to archive here, starting at minute 32.

652. Aug. 14, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, 10 a.m. PST

651. Aug. 14, interview with Chuck Morse, irnusaradio.com, 8 am, PST

650. Aug. 13, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV, Switzerland, 9 am PST

649. Aug 7-11, Madison Democracy conference, https://democracyconvention.org/

648. Aug. 6, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PST

647. Aug 5, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 9 am PST

646. Aug 3, interview with Diane Horn, Mind Over Matter show, KEXP radio, 90.3 FM, Seattle, 7:00 a.m. PST

645. July 31, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

644. July 28, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

643. July 2, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

642. July 2, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 12:30 EST.

641. June 30, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT. Listen to archive here.

640. June 24, interview on RT tv re student debt, 10:30 am PST

639. June 17, interview on The Andy Caldwell Show, 3:30 pm PST

638. June 16, interview with Jason Erb, 5 pm Pacific

637. June 13, interview with Paul Sanford, "Time 4 Hemp-LIVE," http://www.AmericanFreedomRadio.com, 10 am, PST

636. June 6 presentation with Jamie Brown at the Mt. Diablo Peace and Justice Center in Walnut Creek. Info at Favors.org, 7 to 9 pm

635. June 1, interview with Kris Welch, KPFA Los Angeles, 10 am PST

634. May 28, interview with Malihe Razazan, "Your Call" radio, KALW, San Francisco, 10 am PST.

633. May 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

632. May 23 interview with Simit Patel, InformedTrades.com (youtube) 3:30 pm PST

631. May 22, Thousand Oaks, 3 expert panel, "A Parachute For the Fiscal Cliff," University Village 2-4 pm

630. May 22, interview with Jack Rasmus, 11 am PST. Enjoy the interview here.

629. May 22, Guns and Butter show, KPFA, http://www.kpfa.org/archive/id/91790

628. May 14, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

627. May 13, live appearance on RTTV, 3 pm PST Watch it here.

626. May 8, interview with Valli Sharpe-Geisler, Silicon Valley Voice, KKUP, 3 pm PST

625. May 8, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST

624. May 4, interview, Latin Waves with Sylvia Richardson, 10 am PST

623. April 30, Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST

622. April 29, interview with Rob Kall, Bottom Up Radio, 9 am Pacific
Listen to archive here.

621. April 28, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

620. April 25, interview, the the Dr. Katherine Albrecht Show, 5 pm EDT

619. April 17, interview with Mike Harris, rense.com, 1 pm PDT

618. April 16th, speaker, Valley Democrats United (Democratic Party of San Fernando Valley), Van Nuys, Ca. 7-9pm

617. April 13, interview with Darren Weeks, Govern America, noon Eastern, listen here

616. April 9, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

615. April 6, phone conference, Justice Party, http://www.justicepartyusa.org/public_banking_conference_call, 9 a.m.

614. April 5, interview, Butler on Business, 11 a.m. EDT

613. April 3, interview with Michael Welch, Global Research News Hour, 8:30 a.m. PDT

612. April 2, interview with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 PDT. Listen here.

611. April 1, interview with Brannon Howse, www.worldviewradio.com, 11 a.m. PDT

610. April 1, interview with Scott Harris, Counterpoint,
WPKN Radio, 8:30 pm, ET Listen to archive here.

609. April 1, interview with Margaret Flowers and Kevin Zeese. Watch and listen to archive here, starting at minute 50. Articles based on the interview are at Truthout.org.

608. March 31, interview with Jason Erb, Exposing Faux Capitalism, Oracle Broadcasting, 11 a.m. Pacific

607. March 31, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT Listen to the archive here.

606. March 29, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

605. March 28, interview with Stan Monteith, radioliberty.com, 9 pm PDT

604. March 28, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PDT

603. March 27, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PdT.

602. March 27, interview with Jack Rasmus on PRN, 11 a.m. PDT

601. March 25, interview on the Richard Kaffenberger show, KTOX, Needles, CA. 3:15 PDT

600. March 22, newly available archived radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

599. March 22, interview with James Fetzer, The People Speak Radio, 5-7 pm PDT

598. March 22, interview , Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, Santa Fe, 10 a.m. MST

597. March 12, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

596. March 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PST

595. March 9, Interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 9:30 am PST

594. March 6, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6pm PST. Watch and listen here.

593. March 3, interview with Lateef Kareem Bey, Fix Your Mortgage Mess, 4 pm PST

592. March 2, Interview with Stuart Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 11 am PST

591. Feb. 27, interview with Jim Banks, KGNU, Boulder, 12 pm PST

590. Feb 27, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, 10 am PST

589. Feb. 25, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

588. Feb. 6, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 11 am PST. Listen to the archive here: http://talkdigitalnetwork.com/2013/02/this-week-in-money-70/

587. Feb. 4, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 11 am PST.

586. Jan. 31, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 5:00 pm PST

585. Jan. 27, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio
network, 10 am PST

584. Jan. 23, interview on KPFK, 8pm PST

583. Jan. 22, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

582. Jan. 3, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, Tampa, 3 pm EST

581. Jan. 2, interview, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 5 pm PST

--- 2012 ---

580. Dec. 27, video interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, listen and watch here.

579. Dec. 24, October talk at First Unitarian Church in Portland aired on KBOO radio, http://kboo.fm/, 8:00 am PST

578. Dec. 24, interview with Ron Daniels, the WWRL Morning Show with Mark Riley, wwrl1600.com, 5:05 am PST

577. Dec. 21, interview with Andy Caldwell, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com, KZSB AM1290 Santa Barbara / Ventura and KUHL AM1440 Santa Maria / San Luis Obispo, 3:30 pm PST

576. Dec. 20, interview with Fred Smart, aunetwork.tv, 9 pm EST

575. Dec. 19, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST. Listen here.

574. Dec. 19, interview with Dr. Jack Rasmus, Alternative Visions, Progressive Radio Network, 2 pm EST

573. Dec. 17, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 4 pm PST

572. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen here.

571. Dec. 14, interview with Craig Barnes, Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, 9 am PST Listen to the archive here.

570. December 9th, speaker, Mayo Arts Center (10 Mayo Street) in Portland, ME
http://mayostreetarts.org/about-us/where-we-are 7:30-9pm

569. Dec. 7, Vermont's New Economy conference, Vermont College of the Find Arts, Montpelier, VT, 9 am to 4 pm and reception at 4:30. $25
www.global-community.org/neweconomy to register

568. Dec. 5, speaker, Pennsylvania Public Bank Project's Forum on Public Banking, at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA, 7pm

567. Nov. 26-27, 3rd Annual World Conference on Riba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

566. Nov. 22, presentation before Royal Scottish Academy -- "A Public Bank for Scotland" (here), Riddle's Court, 322 Lawnmarket, Edinburgh EH1 2PG Scotland, 6 pm

565. Nov 8, Healthy Money Summit, speaking with Hazel Henderson at 1-2 pm PST, information here.

564. Sunday, Oct. 28, Keynote Speaker; The Buck Starts Here, 2:00pm, sponsored by the Kairos Occasional Speakers Series & OFOR, Kairos Milwaukie UCC, Milwaukie, OR.

563. Saturday, Oct. 27, Keynote Speaker; OFOR Saturday Symposium: The Buck Starts Here, 10am - 3pm, Molalla, OR

562. Friday-Sunday, Oct. 26-28, Keynote Speaker; Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation Fall Retreat - The Buck Starts Here, Camp Adams, Molalla, OR, Friday, 5pm- Sunday 12 noon

561. Friday, October 26, Invited Commentator; screening of “HEIST” (new documentary about the roots of the American economic crisis), sponsored by First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice Action Groups, Alliance for Democracy, KBOO, Move to Amend, 7:00pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

560. (Oct. 25-28, Bioneers Conference, Portland, OR)
Oct. 25, Keynote Speaker; sponsored by Portland Fellowship of Reconciliation (PFOR) and the First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice and Peace Action Groups, 7:00-8:30pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

559. Oct. 24, interview with Per Fagereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 9 am PST

558. Oct. 24, KPFA "Guns and Butter" interview. Listen to archived show here.

557. Oct. 21, speaker at BBQed Oysters and Beer Fundraiser Party for PBI, San Rafael, CA, 4 pm PST

556. Oct. 14, Live Gaiam tv interview appearance. Watch it here free at 7pm EST.

555. Oct. 12, interview with Matt Rothschild of The Progressive, 10 a.m. Central time

554. October 11-14, speaker, Economic Democracy Collaborative, Madison, Wisconsin

553. Oct. 11, radio interview with Norm Stockwell, WORT, 12 pm CST

552. Oct. 9, interview with Kevin Barrett, No Lies Radio, listen to archive here.

551. Oct. 8, interview, "Mountain Hours Revolution Radio" with Wayne Walton, on RBN, 12-1 pm PST

550. Oct. 7, interview with Lloyd D'Aguilar, "Looking Back Looking Forward", http://lookingbacklookingforward.com/, 2 pm EST

549. Sept. 26, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

548. Sept. 25, interview with Dr. Stanley Montieth, radioliberty.com, 3pm PST

547. Sept. 24, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PST.

546. Sept. 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

545. Sept. 17 interview along with Hazel Henderson, National Teach In for Occupy Wall Street, http://www.livestream.com/owshdtv 5pm EST

544. Sept. 10, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV (Switzerland), 7 am PST Watch and listen here

543. Sept. 7, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

542. Sept. 6, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

541. Aug 28, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST. Listen to archive here. And listen to excellent Meria Heller show here.

540. Aug 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, listen to archive here.

539. August 21, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com. Listen to archive here.

538. Aug 20, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

537. Aug 16, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

536. Aug. 14, interview, TheAndyCaldwellshow.com, 4:30pm PST

535. August 13, interview with American Free Press, 1 pm PST

534. July 24, interview along with Victoria Grant, The People Speak, 6pm, PST

533. July 24, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST

532. July 23, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6 pm PST

531. July 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7 pm PST

530. July 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

529. July 19, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

528. July 10-12, Speaker, Conference on Social Transformation, Faculty of Economics, Split University, Split Croatia

527. July 10, video interview with Max Keiser, the Keiser Report, on the ESM. Watch it here.

526. July 7, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 3 pm PST

525. July 6, video interview with Dr. Mercola, see it here.

524. June 23, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

523. June 21, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 4:30 pm PST

522. June 21, interview on the Gary Null Show, 9:20 am PST

521. June 18, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

520. June 17, interview with Bill Resnick, KBOO radio, 9 am PST

519. June 16 interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

518. June 9, interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, 9:45 am PST. Listen to archive here.

517. June 5, interview, Truth Quest With Melodee, KHEN radio, 7pm PST

516. June 2, interview about Web of Debt, Our Common Ground,http://www.blogtalkradio.com/OCG, 7pm PST

515. June 1, interview with Robert Stark, The Stark Truth listen here.

514. Newly available video of interview on "Moral Politics" -- see it here

513. May 30, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, ll am PST

512. May 28, interview with Pedro Gatos, "Bringing Light into Darkness", KOOP.ORG, 6 pm CST

511. May 24, interview, Make It Plain With Mark Thompson, SiriusXM Satellite Radio, 2pm PST

510. May 20, interview, Women's View Radio, blogtalkradio.com, 10 am Central Time. Listen here.

509. May 13, interview, www.Blogtalkradio.com/fixyourmortgagemess, 4:15 pm PST

508. May 12, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST Listen here.

507. May 9, seminar, Re-imagining Money and Credit, Art bldg. rm 103, El Camino college, Torrance, Ca. 5-7:30 pm

506. May 8, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 9 am EST

505. May 7, radio discussion on "The Myth of Austerity", Connect the Dots, KPFK Los Angeles, 7 am PST. Listen here.

504. May 4, interview The Unsolicited Opinion, republicbroadcasting.org, 8 am PST

503. April 27-28, speaker, Public Banking Institute Conference, Friends Center, Philadelphia. Listen here.

502. April 25, speaker Global Teach-In (globalteachin.com), 12 noon EST

501. April 17, Interview with Leo Steel, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/lasteelshoworg, 8:30 pm EST. Listen here.. 31 minutes in.

500. April 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

499. April 14, interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report

498. April 10th-12th Speaker at Claremont Conference, “Creating Money in a Finite World” Claremont, CA . See video here.

497. April 5, interview , This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com) 12:30 PST. Listen to the archive here.

496. April 3, speaker at COMER with Paul Hellyer, "Escape From the Web of Debt," Toronto, 7:30 pm

495. March 27, speaker on "Why are we so Broke? New ways to look at the Finances of our State and City," League of Women Voters luncheon, San Diego, 12 noon

494.5 March 24, radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

494. March 17, speaker via skype, SCADS conference, London

493. March 15, interview with Per Fagereng, Fight the Empire, KBOO radio, 9:30 am PST

492. March 15, speaker, San Rafael City Hall 6 pm

491. March 13, speaker at Sergio Lub's house, Walnut Creek, info at Favors.org, 6pm

490. March 11, speaker, TedxNewWallStreet. See it here.

489. March 10, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

488. March 6, interview with Melinda Pillsbury-Foster, http://radio.rumormillnews.com/podcast/, 11 am PST

487. Feb. 25, interview with Martin Andelman, http://www.mandelman.ml-implode.com, 9:30 am PST

486. Feb. 25, interview, This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com), 3 pm PST

485. Feb. 25, interview on CIVL Radio, Latin Waves, How Greece Could Take Down Wall Street, 11:30am PST

484. Feb 23, interview with Thomas Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

483. Feb. 17, featured speaker, Public Banking in America weekly call, 9 am PST

482. Feb. 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

481. Feb. 8, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

480. Feb. 7, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST; listen to archive here

479. Feb. 6, participant, Occupiers and Wells Fargo Executives Gather to Discuss the American Foreclosure Crisis, The Center of Nonprofit Management at California Endowment Building 1000 N. Alameda, Los Angeles, meeting 3 pm and press conference 5:30 pm

478. Feb. 2, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

477. Feb. 2, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, naturalnewsradio.com. Listen to archive here

476. Jan. 31, interview, Liberty Coins and Precious Metals, 9 am PST

475. Jan. 27, interview KPFA, Project Censored, 8:30 am PST

474. Jan. 27, FILMS4CHANGE-INSIDEJOB, panel speaker, Edye Second Space, Santa Monica Performing Arts Center, 7:30 pm

473. Jan 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7:30 pm PST. Listen live here.

472. Jan. 20, interview with Mike Harris, The Republic Broadcasting Network, 7 am PST

471. Jan. 16, interview with Rob Lorei, WMNF fm, Tampa, 2 pm PST

470. Jan. 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

469. Jan. 11, interview with Jeff Rense, rense.com, 8pm PST

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--2014--

719. July 29-Aug. 5. Moving Beyond Capitalism conference, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

718. January 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST.

--2013--

717. Dec. 30, interview, Stuart Vener Tells It Like It Is, see http://stuartvener.com for stations, 11:30 am EST

716. Dec. 26, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow and Ralph Fucetola, 10 pm EST

715. Dec. 21, interiew, The Mike Feder Show, 2 pm PST

714. Dec. 18, interview, The Power Hour with Joyce Riley, 8 a.m. CT

713. Dec. 18, interview, Unwrapped Radio, WRFG, http://www.tuneinradio.com/, 12:40 EST

712. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST, listen here.
711. Dec. 15, presentation, A Public Bank for Mendocino, at the Crown Hall in Mendocino, Ca., 7 pm

710. Dec. 15, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Mendocino Environmental Center
106 West Standley, Ukiah, CA 95482, 2 pm

709. Dec. 14, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Little Lake Grange, Willits, Ca. 7 pm

708. Dec. 13, interview on All About Money, KZYX radio, 9 a.m. PST

707. Dec. 13, interview, Radio Islam, WCEV 1450 AM, 12:05 pm, CST

706. Dec. 12, appearance with Doug McKenty, "The Shift," Mendocino TV, 4:30 pm PST

705. Dec. 11, interview on WHDT World News, http://NNN.is/on-WHDT, 5:30 and 11:00 pm EST. Watch the archive here.

704. Dec. 11, interview, WORT Community Radio, Madison, Wisconsin, 6:10 a.m. PST

703. Dec. 11, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 10:30 PST

702. Dec. 9, UnWrapped Radio, Atlanta, 1 pm PST.

701. Dec. 9, GOHarrison, KPFK Los Angeles, 3:30 pm PST.

700. Dec. 9, interview, Air Cascadia show, KBOO radio, Portland, 10 am PST

699. Dec. 5, interview, WHDT World News TV, 2 pm PST

698. Dec. 4, interview with David Swanson, talknationradio, 7pm PST

697. Dec. 4, interview with Rob Kall, The Rob Kall Bottom-Up Radio Show, 1360 AM, 7:30 pm EST

696. Dec. 3, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

695. Dec. 2, interview with Val Muchowski, Women's Voices, KZYX, 7 p.m. PST

694. Nov. 29, interview with Gregg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 PST

693. Nov. 16, interview This is Hell! radio show, WNUR 89.3 fm, thisishell.com/live, 11.20 a.m. EST. Listen to archive here

692. Nov. 15, interview with George Berry, The Financial News Network Show, truthfrequencyradio.com, 1 pm PST

691. Nov. 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 4 pm PSTf

690. Nov. 14, interview with Neil Foster, Reality Bytes show, Awake Radio (UK), Shazziz Radio (US), 8 pm UK time.

689. Nov. 13, interview with Bonnie Faulkner, KPFA, Los Angeles. Listen to archive here.

688. Nov. 12, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

687. Nov. 11, interview, Between the Lines News Magazine, WPKN radio, Bridgeport, CT, 9 p.m. ET. Listen to archive here

686. Nov. 10, skype participant, forum at the Putrajaya International Islamic Arts and Cultural Festival, "Global Economic and Monetary Crisis: What Needs to be Done?" Putrajaya, Malaysia, 11 a.m. MYT, 7 pm, Nov. 9 PST

685. Nov. 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

684. Oct. 31, interview with Voice of Russia radio, American edition, 2:30 pm, CET (Central Europe Time.) Listen to archive here.

683. Oct. 23, interview with Daniel Estulin on RT tv

682. Oct. 16, interview with Per Fereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 11 am PST

681. Oct. 15, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 7-9 PM, Hudson Bay Hotel, Athlone, Ireland.

680. Oct. 14, presentation, Cork, Ireland

679. Oct. 12, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 2-4 PM, Springfield Hotel in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland. Information on these three events here.

678. October 4, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 2:30 pm, PST

677. Oct. 3, interview with Joyce Riley, the Power Hour. Listen to archive here.

676. Oct. 1, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report 7:30 EST

675. Sept. 29, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

674. Sept. 27, interviw with Kevin Barrett, AmericanFreedomRadio.com, NoLiesRadio.org:
http://TruthJihadRadio.blogspot.com, 2 pm PST

673. Sept. 19, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

672. Sept. 19, Interview on the Global Research News Hour with Michael Welch--check site for time and archive.

671. Sept. 18, interview with David Sierralupe, Occupy Radio, KWVA, 88.1 FM, Eugene

670. Sept. 15, interview with Niall Bradley, Sott Talk Radio, sott.net, 2 p.m. EST

669. Sept. 14, interview FDLBookSalon, firedoglake.com, 5pm EST

668. Sept. 10, "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

667. Sept. 9, interview with Ken MacDermotRoe and Del LaPietro, In Context Report, 9 am PST. Listen to archive here.

666. Sept 7, interview with Valerie Kirkgaard, WakingUpInAmerica.com, 6 am, PST. Listen here.

665. Sept. 6, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 12:30 pm PST

664. Sept. 5, discussion of how to bring public banking to Colorado on "It's the Economy, Stupid," KGNU, Boulder, 5 p.m. PST

663. Sept. 5, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, 8 a.m. PST

662. Sept. 3, interview (along with Elliott Spitzer?), "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST Listen to archive here.

661. Sept. 3, interview with Jeanette LaFeve, The People Speak, 6 pm PST

660. Aug. 25, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

659. Aug. 22, interview with Christopher Greene, AMTV Radio, simulcast in audio/video over GoogleHangouts and American Freedom Radio, 1 p.m. PST

658. Aug. 22, interview, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com,
CalChronicle.com, 3 pm PST

657. Aug. 21, interview with Merry and Burl Hall, blogtalkradio.com/envision-this, 5 pm PST

656. Aug. 21, interview with Lori Lundin, America's Radio News Network, 10:30 a.m. ET.

655. Aug. 16, interview with Sinclair Noe, Moneyradio.com, 4 pm PST

654. Aug. 15, interview with Justine Underhill, Prime Interest, Russia Today TV, 1:30 pm PST

653. Aug 14, interview with Jim Goddard, This Week in Money, 4 pm, PST. Listen to archive here, starting at minute 32.

652. Aug. 14, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, 10 a.m. PST

651. Aug. 14, interview with Chuck Morse, irnusaradio.com, 8 am, PST

650. Aug. 13, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV, Switzerland, 9 am PST

649. Aug 7-11, Madison Democracy conference, https://democracyconvention.org/

648. Aug. 6, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PST

647. Aug 5, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 9 am PST

646. Aug 3, interview with Diane Horn, Mind Over Matter show, KEXP radio, 90.3 FM, Seattle, 7:00 a.m. PST

645. July 31, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

644. July 28, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

643. July 2, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

642. July 2, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 12:30 EST.

641. June 30, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT. Listen to archive here.

640. June 24, interview on RT tv re student debt, 10:30 am PST

639. June 17, interview on The Andy Caldwell Show, 3:30 pm PST

638. June 16, interview with Jason Erb, 5 pm Pacific

637. June 13, interview with Paul Sanford, "Time 4 Hemp-LIVE," http://www.AmericanFreedomRadio.com, 10 am, PST

636. June 6 presentation with Jamie Brown at the Mt. Diablo Peace and Justice Center in Walnut Creek. Info at Favors.org, 7 to 9 pm

635. June 1, interview with Kris Welch, KPFA Los Angeles, 10 am PST

634. May 28, interview with Malihe Razazan, "Your Call" radio, KALW, San Francisco, 10 am PST.

633. May 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

632. May 23 interview with Simit Patel, InformedTrades.com (youtube) 3:30 pm PST

631. May 22, Thousand Oaks, 3 expert panel, "A Parachute For the Fiscal Cliff," University Village 2-4 pm

630. May 22, interview with Jack Rasmus, 11 am PST. Enjoy the interview here.

629. May 22, Guns and Butter show, KPFA, http://www.kpfa.org/archive/id/91790

628. May 14, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

627. May 13, live appearance on RTTV, 3 pm PST Watch it here.

626. May 8, interview with Valli Sharpe-Geisler, Silicon Valley Voice, KKUP, 3 pm PST

625. May 8, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST

624. May 4, interview, Latin Waves with Sylvia Richardson, 10 am PST

623. April 30, Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST

622. April 29, interview with Rob Kall, Bottom Up Radio, 9 am Pacific
Listen to archive here.

621. April 28, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

620. April 25, interview, the the Dr. Katherine Albrecht Show, 5 pm EDT

619. April 17, interview with Mike Harris, rense.com, 1 pm PDT

618. April 16th, speaker, Valley Democrats United (Democratic Party of San Fernando Valley), Van Nuys, Ca. 7-9pm

617. April 13, interview with Darren Weeks, Govern America, noon Eastern, listen here

616. April 9, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

615. April 6, phone conference, Justice Party, http://www.justicepartyusa.org/public_banking_conference_call, 9 a.m.

614. April 5, interview, Butler on Business, 11 a.m. EDT

613. April 3, interview with Michael Welch, Global Research News Hour, 8:30 a.m. PDT

612. April 2, interview with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 PDT. Listen here.

611. April 1, interview with Brannon Howse, www.worldviewradio.com, 11 a.m. PDT

610. April 1, interview with Scott Harris, Counterpoint,
WPKN Radio, 8:30 pm, ET Listen to archive here.

609. April 1, interview with Margaret Flowers and Kevin Zeese. Watch and listen to archive here, starting at minute 50. Articles based on the interview are at Truthout.org.

608. March 31, interview with Jason Erb, Exposing Faux Capitalism, Oracle Broadcasting, 11 a.m. Pacific

607. March 31, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT Listen to the archive here.

606. March 29, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

605. March 28, interview with Stan Monteith, radioliberty.com, 9 pm PDT

604. March 28, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PDT

603. March 27, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PdT.

602. March 27, interview with Jack Rasmus on PRN, 11 a.m. PDT

601. March 25, interview on the Richard Kaffenberger show, KTOX, Needles, CA. 3:15 PDT

600. March 22, newly available archived radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

599. March 22, interview with James Fetzer, The People Speak Radio, 5-7 pm PDT

598. March 22, interview , Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, Santa Fe, 10 a.m. MST

597. March 12, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

596. March 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PST

595. March 9, Interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 9:30 am PST

594. March 6, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6pm PST. Watch and listen here.

593. March 3, interview with Lateef Kareem Bey, Fix Your Mortgage Mess, 4 pm PST

592. March 2, Interview with Stuart Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 11 am PST

591. Feb. 27, interview with Jim Banks, KGNU, Boulder, 12 pm PST

590. Feb 27, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, 10 am PST

589. Feb. 25, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

588. Feb. 6, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 11 am PST. Listen to the archive here: http://talkdigitalnetwork.com/2013/02/this-week-in-money-70/

587. Feb. 4, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 11 am PST.

586. Jan. 31, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 5:00 pm PST

585. Jan. 27, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio
network, 10 am PST

584. Jan. 23, interview on KPFK, 8pm PST

583. Jan. 22, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

582. Jan. 3, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, Tampa, 3 pm EST

581. Jan. 2, interview, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 5 pm PST

--- 2012 ---

580. Dec. 27, video interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, listen and watch here.

579. Dec. 24, October talk at First Unitarian Church in Portland aired on KBOO radio, http://kboo.fm/, 8:00 am PST

578. Dec. 24, interview with Ron Daniels, the WWRL Morning Show with Mark Riley, wwrl1600.com, 5:05 am PST

577. Dec. 21, interview with Andy Caldwell, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com, KZSB AM1290 Santa Barbara / Ventura and KUHL AM1440 Santa Maria / San Luis Obispo, 3:30 pm PST

576. Dec. 20, interview with Fred Smart, aunetwork.tv, 9 pm EST

575. Dec. 19, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST. Listen here.

574. Dec. 19, interview with Dr. Jack Rasmus, Alternative Visions, Progressive Radio Network, 2 pm EST

573. Dec. 17, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 4 pm PST

572. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen here.

571. Dec. 14, interview with Craig Barnes, Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, 9 am PST Listen to the archive here.

570. December 9th, speaker, Mayo Arts Center (10 Mayo Street) in Portland, ME
http://mayostreetarts.org/about-us/where-we-are 7:30-9pm

569. Dec. 7, Vermont's New Economy conference, Vermont College of the Find Arts, Montpelier, VT, 9 am to 4 pm and reception at 4:30. $25
www.global-community.org/neweconomy to register

568. Dec. 5, speaker, Pennsylvania Public Bank Project's Forum on Public Banking, at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA, 7pm

567. Nov. 26-27, 3rd Annual World Conference on Riba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

566. Nov. 22, presentation before Royal Scottish Academy -- "A Public Bank for Scotland" (here), Riddle's Court, 322 Lawnmarket, Edinburgh EH1 2PG Scotland, 6 pm

565. Nov 8, Healthy Money Summit, speaking with Hazel Henderson at 1-2 pm PST, information here.

564. Sunday, Oct. 28, Keynote Speaker; The Buck Starts Here, 2:00pm, sponsored by the Kairos Occasional Speakers Series & OFOR, Kairos Milwaukie UCC, Milwaukie, OR.

563. Saturday, Oct. 27, Keynote Speaker; OFOR Saturday Symposium: The Buck Starts Here, 10am - 3pm, Molalla, OR

562. Friday-Sunday, Oct. 26-28, Keynote Speaker; Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation Fall Retreat - The Buck Starts Here, Camp Adams, Molalla, OR, Friday, 5pm- Sunday 12 noon

561. Friday, October 26, Invited Commentator; screening of “HEIST” (new documentary about the roots of the American economic crisis), sponsored by First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice Action Groups, Alliance for Democracy, KBOO, Move to Amend, 7:00pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

560. (Oct. 25-28, Bioneers Conference, Portland, OR)
Oct. 25, Keynote Speaker; sponsored by Portland Fellowship of Reconciliation (PFOR) and the First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice and Peace Action Groups, 7:00-8:30pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

559. Oct. 24, interview with Per Fagereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 9 am PST

558. Oct. 24, KPFA "Guns and Butter" interview. Listen to archived show here.

557. Oct. 21, speaker at BBQed Oysters and Beer Fundraiser Party for PBI, San Rafael, CA, 4 pm PST

556. Oct. 14, Live Gaiam tv interview appearance. Watch it here free at 7pm EST.

555. Oct. 12, interview with Matt Rothschild of The Progressive, 10 a.m. Central time

554. October 11-14, speaker, Economic Democracy Collaborative, Madison, Wisconsin

553. Oct. 11, radio interview with Norm Stockwell, WORT, 12 pm CST

552. Oct. 9, interview with Kevin Barrett, No Lies Radio, listen to archive here.

551. Oct. 8, interview, "Mountain Hours Revolution Radio" with Wayne Walton, on RBN, 12-1 pm PST

550. Oct. 7, interview with Lloyd D'Aguilar, "Looking Back Looking Forward", http://lookingbacklookingforward.com/, 2 pm EST

549. Sept. 26, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

548. Sept. 25, interview with Dr. Stanley Montieth, radioliberty.com, 3pm PST

547. Sept. 24, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PST.

546. Sept. 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

545. Sept. 17 interview along with Hazel Henderson, National Teach In for Occupy Wall Street, http://www.livestream.com/owshdtv 5pm EST

544. Sept. 10, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV (Switzerland), 7 am PST Watch and listen here

543. Sept. 7, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

542. Sept. 6, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

541. Aug 28, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST. Listen to archive here. And listen to excellent Meria Heller show here.

540. Aug 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, listen to archive here.

539. August 21, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com. Listen to archive here.

538. Aug 20, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

537. Aug 16, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

536. Aug. 14, interview, TheAndyCaldwellshow.com, 4:30pm PST

535. August 13, interview with American Free Press, 1 pm PST

534. July 24, interview along with Victoria Grant, The People Speak, 6pm, PST

533. July 24, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST

532. July 23, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6 pm PST

531. July 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7 pm PST

530. July 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

529. July 19, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

528. July 10-12, Speaker, Conference on Social Transformation, Faculty of Economics, Split University, Split Croatia

527. July 10, video interview with Max Keiser, the Keiser Report, on the ESM. Watch it here.

526. July 7, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 3 pm PST

525. July 6, video interview with Dr. Mercola, see it here.

524. June 23, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

523. June 21, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 4:30 pm PST

522. June 21, interview on the Gary Null Show, 9:20 am PST

521. June 18, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

520. June 17, interview with Bill Resnick, KBOO radio, 9 am PST

519. June 16 interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

518. June 9, interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, 9:45 am PST. Listen to archive here.

517. June 5, interview, Truth Quest With Melodee, KHEN radio, 7pm PST

516. June 2, interview about Web of Debt, Our Common Ground,http://www.blogtalkradio.com/OCG, 7pm PST

515. June 1, interview with Robert Stark, The Stark Truth listen here.

514. Newly available video of interview on "Moral Politics" -- see it here

513. May 30, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, ll am PST

512. May 28, interview with Pedro Gatos, "Bringing Light into Darkness", KOOP.ORG, 6 pm CST

511. May 24, interview, Make It Plain With Mark Thompson, SiriusXM Satellite Radio, 2pm PST

510. May 20, interview, Women's View Radio, blogtalkradio.com, 10 am Central Time. Listen here.

509. May 13, interview, www.Blogtalkradio.com/fixyourmortgagemess, 4:15 pm PST

508. May 12, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST Listen here.

507. May 9, seminar, Re-imagining Money and Credit, Art bldg. rm 103, El Camino college, Torrance, Ca. 5-7:30 pm

506. May 8, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 9 am EST

505. May 7, radio discussion on "The Myth of Austerity", Connect the Dots, KPFK Los Angeles, 7 am PST. Listen here.

504. May 4, interview The Unsolicited Opinion, republicbroadcasting.org, 8 am PST

503. April 27-28, speaker, Public Banking Institute Conference, Friends Center, Philadelphia. Listen here.

502. April 25, speaker Global Teach-In (globalteachin.com), 12 noon EST

501. April 17, Interview with Leo Steel, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/lasteelshoworg, 8:30 pm EST. Listen here.. 31 minutes in.

500. April 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

499. April 14, interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report

498. April 10th-12th Speaker at Claremont Conference, “Creating Money in a Finite World” Claremont, CA . See video here.

497. April 5, interview , This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com) 12:30 PST. Listen to the archive here.

496. April 3, speaker at COMER with Paul Hellyer, "Escape From the Web of Debt," Toronto, 7:30 pm

495. March 27, speaker on "Why are we so Broke? New ways to look at the Finances of our State and City," League of Women Voters luncheon, San Diego, 12 noon

494.5 March 24, radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

494. March 17, speaker via skype, SCADS conference, London

493. March 15, interview with Per Fagereng, Fight the Empire, KBOO radio, 9:30 am PST

492. March 15, speaker, San Rafael City Hall 6 pm

491. March 13, speaker at Sergio Lub's house, Walnut Creek, info at Favors.org, 6pm

490. March 11, speaker, TedxNewWallStreet. See it here.

489. March 10, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

488. March 6, interview with Melinda Pillsbury-Foster, http://radio.rumormillnews.com/podcast/, 11 am PST

487. Feb. 25, interview with Martin Andelman, http://www.mandelman.ml-implode.com, 9:30 am PST

486. Feb. 25, interview, This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com), 3 pm PST

485. Feb. 25, interview on CIVL Radio, Latin Waves, How Greece Could Take Down Wall Street, 11:30am PST

484. Feb 23, interview with Thomas Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

483. Feb. 17, featured speaker, Public Banking in America weekly call, 9 am PST

482. Feb. 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

481. Feb. 8, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

480. Feb. 7, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST; listen to archive here

479. Feb. 6, participant, Occupiers and Wells Fargo Executives Gather to Discuss the American Foreclosure Crisis, The Center of Nonprofit Management at California Endowment Building 1000 N. Alameda, Los Angeles, meeting 3 pm and press conference 5:30 pm

478. Feb. 2, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

477. Feb. 2, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, naturalnewsradio.com. Listen to archive here

476. Jan. 31, interview, Liberty Coins and Precious Metals, 9 am PST

475. Jan. 27, interview KPFA, Project Censored, 8:30 am PST

474. Jan. 27, FILMS4CHANGE-INSIDEJOB, panel speaker, Edye Second Space, Santa Monica Performing Arts Center, 7:30 pm

473. Jan 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7:30 pm PST. Listen live here.

472. Jan. 20, interview with Mike Harris, The Republic Broadcasting Network, 7 am PST

471. Jan. 16, interview with Rob Lorei, WMNF fm, Tampa, 2 pm PST

470. Jan. 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

469. Jan. 11, interview with Jeff Rense, rense.com, 8pm PST

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On USAWatchdog with Greg Hunter

--2014--

704. July 29-Aug. 5. Moving Beyond Capitalism conference, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

--2013--

703. Dec. 26, interview Dr. Rima Truth Reports, with Dr. Rima Laibow and Ralph Fucetola, 10 pm EST

702. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

701. Dec. 15, presentation, A Public Bank for Mendocino, at the Crown Hall in Mendocino, Ca., 7 pm

700. Dec. 15, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, at the MEC in Ukia, Ca., 2 pm

699. Dec. 14, presentation, Why We Need to Own Our Own Bank, Little Lake Grange, Willits, Ca. 7 pm

698. Dec. 13, interview on All About Money, KZYX radio, 9 a.m. PST

697. Dec. 11, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, MoneyRadio.com, 10:30 PST

696. Dec. 3, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

695. Dec. 2, interview with Val Muchowski, Women's Voices, KZYX, 7 p.m. PST

694. Nov. 29, interview with Gregg Hunter, USAWatchdog.com, 11:30 PST

693. Nov. 16, interview This is Hell! radio show, WNUR 89.3 fm, thisishell.com/live, 11.20 a.m. EST. Listen to archive here

692. Nov. 15, interview with George Berry, The Financial News Network Show, truthfrequencyradio.com, 1 pm PST

691. Nov. 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 4 pm PSTf

690. Nov. 14, interview with Neil Foster, Reality Bytes show, Awake Radio (UK), Shazziz Radio (US), 8 pm UK time.

689. Nov. 13, interview with Bonnie Faulkner, KPFA, Los Angeles. Listen to archive here.

688. Nov. 12, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

687. Nov. 11, interview, Between the Lines News Magazine, WPKN radio, Bridgeport, CT, 9 p.m. ET. Listen to archive here

686. Nov. 10, skype participant, forum at the Putrajaya International Islamic Arts and Cultural Festival, "Global Economic and Monetary Crisis: What Needs to be Done?" Putrajaya, Malaysia, 11 a.m. MYT, 7 pm, Nov. 9 PST

685. Nov. 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

684. Oct. 31, interview with Voice of Russia radio, American edition, 2:30 pm, CET (Central Europe Time.) Listen to archive here.

683. Oct. 23, interview with Daniel Estulin on RT tv

682. Oct. 16, interview with Per Fereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 11 am PST

681. Oct. 15, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 7-9 PM, Hudson Bay Hotel, Athlone, Ireland.

680. Oct. 14, presentation, Cork, Ireland

679. Oct. 12, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 2-4 PM, Springfield Hotel in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland. Information on these three events here.

678. October 4, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 2:30 pm, PST

677. Oct. 3, interview with Joyce Riley, the Power Hour. Listen to archive here.

676. Oct. 1, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report 7:30 EST

675. Sept. 29, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

674. Sept. 27, interviw with Kevin Barrett, AmericanFreedomRadio.com, NoLiesRadio.org:
http://TruthJihadRadio.blogspot.com, 2 pm PST

673. Sept. 19, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

672. Sept. 19, Interview on the Global Research News Hour with Michael Welch--check site for time and archive.

671. Sept. 18, interview with David Sierralupe, Occupy Radio, KWVA, 88.1 FM, Eugene

670. Sept. 15, interview with Niall Bradley, Sott Talk Radio, sott.net, 2 p.m. EST

669. Sept. 14, interview FDLBookSalon, firedoglake.com, 5pm EST

668. Sept. 10, "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

667. Sept. 9, interview with Ken MacDermotRoe and Del LaPietro, In Context Report, 9 am PST. Listen to archive here.

666. Sept 7, interview with Valerie Kirkgaard, WakingUpInAmerica.com, 6 am, PST. Listen here.

665. Sept. 6, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 12:30 pm PST

664. Sept. 5, discussion of how to bring public banking to Colorado on "It's the Economy, Stupid," KGNU, Boulder, 5 p.m. PST

663. Sept. 5, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, 8 a.m. PST

662. Sept. 3, interview (along with Elliott Spitzer?), "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST Listen to archive here.

661. Sept. 3, interview with Jeanette LaFeve, The People Speak, 6 pm PST

660. Aug. 25, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

659. Aug. 22, interview with Christopher Greene, AMTV Radio, simulcast in audio/video over GoogleHangouts and American Freedom Radio, 1 p.m. PST

658. Aug. 22, interview, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com,
CalChronicle.com, 3 pm PST

657. Aug. 21, interview with Merry and Burl Hall, blogtalkradio.com/envision-this, 5 pm PST

656. Aug. 21, interview with Lori Lundin, America's Radio News Network, 10:30 a.m. ET.

655. Aug. 16, interview with Sinclair Noe, Moneyradio.com, 4 pm PST

654. Aug. 15, interview with Justine Underhill, Prime Interest, Russia Today TV, 1:30 pm PST

653. Aug 14, interview with Jim Goddard, This Week in Money, 4 pm, PST. Listen to archive here, starting at minute 32.

652. Aug. 14, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, 10 a.m. PST

651. Aug. 14, interview with Chuck Morse, irnusaradio.com, 8 am, PST

650. Aug. 13, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV, Switzerland, 9 am PST

649. Aug 7-11, Madison Democracy conference, https://democracyconvention.org/

648. Aug. 6, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PST

647. Aug 5, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 9 am PST

646. Aug 3, interview with Diane Horn, Mind Over Matter show, KEXP radio, 90.3 FM, Seattle, 7:00 a.m. PST

645. July 31, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

644. July 28, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

643. July 2, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

642. July 2, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 12:30 EST.

641. June 30, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT. Listen to archive here.

640. June 24, interview on RT tv re student debt, 10:30 am PST

639. June 17, interview on The Andy Caldwell Show, 3:30 pm PST

638. June 16, interview with Jason Erb, 5 pm Pacific

637. June 13, interview with Paul Sanford, "Time 4 Hemp-LIVE," http://www.AmericanFreedomRadio.com, 10 am, PST

636. June 6 presentation with Jamie Brown at the Mt. Diablo Peace and Justice Center in Walnut Creek. Info at Favors.org, 7 to 9 pm

635. June 1, interview with Kris Welch, KPFA Los Angeles, 10 am PST

634. May 28, interview with Malihe Razazan, "Your Call" radio, KALW, San Francisco, 10 am PST.

633. May 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

632. May 23 interview with Simit Patel, InformedTrades.com (youtube) 3:30 pm PST

631. May 22, Thousand Oaks, 3 expert panel, "A Parachute For the Fiscal Cliff," University Village 2-4 pm

630. May 22, interview with Jack Rasmus, 11 am PST. Enjoy the interview here.

629. May 22, Guns and Butter show, KPFA, http://www.kpfa.org/archive/id/91790

628. May 14, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

627. May 13, live appearance on RTTV, 3 pm PST Watch it here.

626. May 8, interview with Valli Sharpe-Geisler, Silicon Valley Voice, KKUP, 3 pm PST

625. May 8, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST

624. May 4, interview, Latin Waves with Sylvia Richardson, 10 am PST

623. April 30, Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST

622. April 29, interview with Rob Kall, Bottom Up Radio, 9 am Pacific
Listen to archive here.

621. April 28, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

620. April 25, interview, the the Dr. Katherine Albrecht Show, 5 pm EDT

619. April 17, interview with Mike Harris, rense.com, 1 pm PDT

618. April 16th, speaker, Valley Democrats United (Democratic Party of San Fernando Valley), Van Nuys, Ca. 7-9pm

617. April 13, interview with Darren Weeks, Govern America, noon Eastern, listen here

616. April 9, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

615. April 6, phone conference, Justice Party, http://www.justicepartyusa.org/public_banking_conference_call, 9 a.m.

614. April 5, interview, Butler on Business, 11 a.m. EDT

613. April 3, interview with Michael Welch, Global Research News Hour, 8:30 a.m. PDT

612. April 2, interview with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 PDT. Listen here.

611. April 1, interview with Brannon Howse, www.worldviewradio.com, 11 a.m. PDT

610. April 1, interview with Scott Harris, Counterpoint,
WPKN Radio, 8:30 pm, ET Listen to archive here.

609. April 1, interview with Margaret Flowers and Kevin Zeese. Watch and listen to archive here, starting at minute 50. Articles based on the interview are at Truthout.org.

608. March 31, interview with Jason Erb, Exposing Faux Capitalism, Oracle Broadcasting, 11 a.m. Pacific

607. March 31, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT Listen to the archive here.

606. March 29, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

605. March 28, interview with Stan Monteith, radioliberty.com, 9 pm PDT

604. March 28, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PDT

603. March 27, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PdT.

602. March 27, interview with Jack Rasmus on PRN, 11 a.m. PDT

601. March 25, interview on the Richard Kaffenberger show, KTOX, Needles, CA. 3:15 PDT

600. March 22, newly available archived radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

599. March 22, interview with James Fetzer, The People Speak Radio, 5-7 pm PDT

598. March 22, interview , Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, Santa Fe, 10 a.m. MST

597. March 12, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

596. March 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PST

595. March 9, Interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 9:30 am PST

594. March 6, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6pm PST. Watch and listen here.

593. March 3, interview with Lateef Kareem Bey, Fix Your Mortgage Mess, 4 pm PST

592. March 2, Interview with Stuart Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 11 am PST

591. Feb. 27, interview with Jim Banks, KGNU, Boulder, 12 pm PST

590. Feb 27, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, 10 am PST

589. Feb. 25, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

588. Feb. 6, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 11 am PST. Listen to the archive here: http://talkdigitalnetwork.com/2013/02/this-week-in-money-70/

587. Feb. 4, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 11 am PST.

586. Jan. 31, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 5:00 pm PST

585. Jan. 27, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio
network, 10 am PST

584. Jan. 23, interview on KPFK, 8pm PST

583. Jan. 22, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

582. Jan. 3, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, Tampa, 3 pm EST

581. Jan. 2, interview, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 5 pm PST

--- 2012 ---

580. Dec. 27, video interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, listen and watch here.

579. Dec. 24, October talk at First Unitarian Church in Portland aired on KBOO radio, http://kboo.fm/, 8:00 am PST

578. Dec. 24, interview with Ron Daniels, the WWRL Morning Show with Mark Riley, wwrl1600.com, 5:05 am PST

577. Dec. 21, interview with Andy Caldwell, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com, KZSB AM1290 Santa Barbara / Ventura and KUHL AM1440 Santa Maria / San Luis Obispo, 3:30 pm PST

576. Dec. 20, interview with Fred Smart, aunetwork.tv, 9 pm EST

575. Dec. 19, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST. Listen here.

574. Dec. 19, interview with Dr. Jack Rasmus, Alternative Visions, Progressive Radio Network, 2 pm EST

573. Dec. 17, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 4 pm PST

572. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen here.

571. Dec. 14, interview with Craig Barnes, Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, 9 am PST Listen to the archive here.

570. December 9th, speaker, Mayo Arts Center (10 Mayo Street) in Portland, ME
http://mayostreetarts.org/about-us/where-we-are 7:30-9pm

569. Dec. 7, Vermont's New Economy conference, Vermont College of the Find Arts, Montpelier, VT, 9 am to 4 pm and reception at 4:30. $25
www.global-community.org/neweconomy to register

568. Dec. 5, speaker, Pennsylvania Public Bank Project's Forum on Public Banking, at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA, 7pm

567. Nov. 26-27, 3rd Annual World Conference on Riba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

566. Nov. 22, presentation before Royal Scottish Academy -- "A Public Bank for Scotland" (here), Riddle's Court, 322 Lawnmarket, Edinburgh EH1 2PG Scotland, 6 pm

565. Nov 8, Healthy Money Summit, speaking with Hazel Henderson at 1-2 pm PST, information here.

564. Sunday, Oct. 28, Keynote Speaker; The Buck Starts Here, 2:00pm, sponsored by the Kairos Occasional Speakers Series & OFOR, Kairos Milwaukie UCC, Milwaukie, OR.

563. Saturday, Oct. 27, Keynote Speaker; OFOR Saturday Symposium: The Buck Starts Here, 10am - 3pm, Molalla, OR

562. Friday-Sunday, Oct. 26-28, Keynote Speaker; Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation Fall Retreat - The Buck Starts Here, Camp Adams, Molalla, OR, Friday, 5pm- Sunday 12 noon

561. Friday, October 26, Invited Commentator; screening of “HEIST” (new documentary about the roots of the American economic crisis), sponsored by First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice Action Groups, Alliance for Democracy, KBOO, Move to Amend, 7:00pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

560. (Oct. 25-28, Bioneers Conference, Portland, OR)
Oct. 25, Keynote Speaker; sponsored by Portland Fellowship of Reconciliation (PFOR) and the First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice and Peace Action Groups, 7:00-8:30pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

559. Oct. 24, interview with Per Fagereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 9 am PST

558. Oct. 24, KPFA "Guns and Butter" interview. Listen to archived show here.

557. Oct. 21, speaker at BBQed Oysters and Beer Fundraiser Party for PBI, San Rafael, CA, 4 pm PST

556. Oct. 14, Live Gaiam tv interview appearance. Watch it here free at 7pm EST.

555. Oct. 12, interview with Matt Rothschild of The Progressive, 10 a.m. Central time

554. October 11-14, speaker, Economic Democracy Collaborative, Madison, Wisconsin

553. Oct. 11, radio interview with Norm Stockwell, WORT, 12 pm CST

552. Oct. 9, interview with Kevin Barrett, No Lies Radio, listen to archive here.

551. Oct. 8, interview, "Mountain Hours Revolution Radio" with Wayne Walton, on RBN, 12-1 pm PST

550. Oct. 7, interview with Lloyd D'Aguilar, "Looking Back Looking Forward", http://lookingbacklookingforward.com/, 2 pm EST

549. Sept. 26, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

548. Sept. 25, interview with Dr. Stanley Montieth, radioliberty.com, 3pm PST

547. Sept. 24, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PST.

546. Sept. 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

545. Sept. 17 interview along with Hazel Henderson, National Teach In for Occupy Wall Street, http://www.livestream.com/owshdtv 5pm EST

544. Sept. 10, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV (Switzerland), 7 am PST Watch and listen here

543. Sept. 7, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

542. Sept. 6, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

541. Aug 28, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST. Listen to archive here. And listen to excellent Meria Heller show here.

540. Aug 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, listen to archive here.

539. August 21, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com. Listen to archive here.

538. Aug 20, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

537. Aug 16, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

536. Aug. 14, interview, TheAndyCaldwellshow.com, 4:30pm PST

535. August 13, interview with American Free Press, 1 pm PST

534. July 24, interview along with Victoria Grant, The People Speak, 6pm, PST

533. July 24, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST

532. July 23, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6 pm PST

531. July 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7 pm PST

530. July 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

529. July 19, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

528. July 10-12, Speaker, Conference on Social Transformation, Faculty of Economics, Split University, Split Croatia

527. July 10, video interview with Max Keiser, the Keiser Report, on the ESM. Watch it here.

526. July 7, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 3 pm PST

525. July 6, video interview with Dr. Mercola, see it here.

524. June 23, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

523. June 21, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 4:30 pm PST

522. June 21, interview on the Gary Null Show, 9:20 am PST

521. June 18, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

520. June 17, interview with Bill Resnick, KBOO radio, 9 am PST

519. June 16 interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

518. June 9, interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, 9:45 am PST. Listen to archive here.

517. June 5, interview, Truth Quest With Melodee, KHEN radio, 7pm PST

516. June 2, interview about Web of Debt, Our Common Ground,http://www.blogtalkradio.com/OCG, 7pm PST

515. June 1, interview with Robert Stark, The Stark Truth listen here.

514. Newly available video of interview on "Moral Politics" -- see it here

513. May 30, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, ll am PST

512. May 28, interview with Pedro Gatos, "Bringing Light into Darkness", KOOP.ORG, 6 pm CST

511. May 24, interview, Make It Plain With Mark Thompson, SiriusXM Satellite Radio, 2pm PST

510. May 20, interview, Women's View Radio, blogtalkradio.com, 10 am Central Time. Listen here.

509. May 13, interview, www.Blogtalkradio.com/fixyourmortgagemess, 4:15 pm PST

508. May 12, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST Listen here.

507. May 9, seminar, Re-imagining Money and Credit, Art bldg. rm 103, El Camino college, Torrance, Ca. 5-7:30 pm

506. May 8, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 9 am EST

505. May 7, radio discussion on "The Myth of Austerity", Connect the Dots, KPFK Los Angeles, 7 am PST. Listen here.

504. May 4, interview The Unsolicited Opinion, republicbroadcasting.org, 8 am PST

503. April 27-28, speaker, Public Banking Institute Conference, Friends Center, Philadelphia. Listen here.

502. April 25, speaker Global Teach-In (globalteachin.com), 12 noon EST

501. April 17, Interview with Leo Steel, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/lasteelshoworg, 8:30 pm EST. Listen here.. 31 minutes in.

500. April 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

499. April 14, interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report

498. April 10th-12th Speaker at Claremont Conference, “Creating Money in a Finite World” Claremont, CA . See video here.

497. April 5, interview , This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com) 12:30 PST. Listen to the archive here.

496. April 3, speaker at COMER with Paul Hellyer, "Escape From the Web of Debt," Toronto, 7:30 pm

495. March 27, speaker on "Why are we so Broke? New ways to look at the Finances of our State and City," League of Women Voters luncheon, San Diego, 12 noon

494.5 March 24, radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

494. March 17, speaker via skype, SCADS conference, London

493. March 15, interview with Per Fagereng, Fight the Empire, KBOO radio, 9:30 am PST

492. March 15, speaker, San Rafael City Hall 6 pm

491. March 13, speaker at Sergio Lub's house, Walnut Creek, info at Favors.org, 6pm

490. March 11, speaker, TedxNewWallStreet. See it here.

489. March 10, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

488. March 6, interview with Melinda Pillsbury-Foster, http://radio.rumormillnews.com/podcast/, 11 am PST

487. Feb. 25, interview with Martin Andelman, http://www.mandelman.ml-implode.com, 9:30 am PST

486. Feb. 25, interview, This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com), 3 pm PST

485. Feb. 25, interview on CIVL Radio, Latin Waves, How Greece Could Take Down Wall Street, 11:30am PST

484. Feb 23, interview with Thomas Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

483. Feb. 17, featured speaker, Public Banking in America weekly call, 9 am PST

482. Feb. 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

481. Feb. 8, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

480. Feb. 7, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST; listen to archive here

479. Feb. 6, participant, Occupiers and Wells Fargo Executives Gather to Discuss the American Foreclosure Crisis, The Center of Nonprofit Management at California Endowment Building 1000 N. Alameda, Los Angeles, meeting 3 pm and press conference 5:30 pm

478. Feb. 2, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

477. Feb. 2, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, naturalnewsradio.com. Listen to archive here

476. Jan. 31, interview, Liberty Coins and Precious Metals, 9 am PST

475. Jan. 27, interview KPFA, Project Censored, 8:30 am PST

474. Jan. 27, FILMS4CHANGE-INSIDEJOB, panel speaker, Edye Second Space, Santa Monica Performing Arts Center, 7:30 pm

473. Jan 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7:30 pm PST. Listen live here.

472. Jan. 20, interview with Mike Harris, The Republic Broadcasting Network, 7 am PST

471. Jan. 16, interview with Rob Lorei, WMNF fm, Tampa, 2 pm PST

470. Jan. 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

469. Jan. 11, interview with Jeff Rense, rense.com, 8pm PST

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--2014--

695. July 29-Aug. 5. Moving Beyond Capitalism conference, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

--2013--

694. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

693. Nov. 16, interview This is Hell! radio show, WNUR 89.3 fm, thisishell.com/live, 11.20 a.m. EST. Listen to archive here

692. Nov. 15, interview with George Berry, The Financial News Network Show, truthfrequencyradio.com, 1 pm PST

691. Nov. 14, interview with Stanley Montieth, The Doctor Stan Show, Radio Liberty, 4 pm PSTf

690. Nov. 14, interview with Neil Foster, Reality Bytes show, Awake Radio (UK), Shazziz Radio (US), 8 pm UK time.

689. Nov. 13, interview with Bonnie Faulkner, KPFA, Los Angeles. Listen to archive here.

688. Nov. 12, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report, 4:30 PST

687. Nov. 11, interview, Between the Lines News Magazine, WPKN radio, Bridgeport, CT, 9 p.m. ET. Listen to archive here

686. Nov. 10, skype participant, forum at the Putrajaya International Islamic Arts and Cultural Festival, "Global Economic and Monetary Crisis: What Needs to be Done?" Putrajaya, Malaysia, 11 a.m. MYT, 7 pm, Nov. 9 PST

685. Nov. 3, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

684. Oct. 31, interview with Voice of Russia radio, American edition, 2:30 pm, CET (Central Europe Time.) Listen to archive here.

683. Oct. 23, interview with Daniel Estulin on RT tv

682. Oct. 16, interview with Per Fereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 11 am PST

681. Oct. 15, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 7-9 PM, Hudson Bay Hotel, Athlone, Ireland.

680. Oct. 14, presentation, Cork, Ireland

679. Oct. 12, presentation, "The Public Banking Forum in Ireland," 2-4 PM, Springfield Hotel in Leixlip, County Kildare, Ireland. Information on these three events here.

678. October 4, interview with Bill Deller, 3CR radio, Melbourne, Australia, 2:30 pm, PST

677. Oct. 3, interview with Joyce Riley, the Power Hour. Listen to archive here.

676. Oct. 1, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report 7:30 EST

675. Sept. 29, interview with Stephen Lendman, The Progressive Newshour, 10 a.m. PST

674. Sept. 27, interviw with Kevin Barrett, AmericanFreedomRadio.com, NoLiesRadio.org:
http://TruthJihadRadio.blogspot.com, 2 pm PST

673. Sept. 19, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

672. Sept. 19, Interview on the Global Research News Hour with Michael Welch--check site for time and archive.

671. Sept. 18, interview with David Sierralupe, Occupy Radio, KWVA, 88.1 FM, Eugene

670. Sept. 15, interview with Niall Bradley, Sott Talk Radio, sott.net, 2 p.m. EST

669. Sept. 14, interview FDLBookSalon, firedoglake.com, 5pm EST

668. Sept. 10, "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

667. Sept. 9, interview with Ken MacDermotRoe and Del LaPietro, In Context Report, 9 am PST. Listen to archive here.

666. Sept 7, interview with Valerie Kirkgaard, WakingUpInAmerica.com, 6 am, PST. Listen here.

665. Sept. 6, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 12:30 pm PST

664. Sept. 5, discussion of how to bring public banking to Colorado on "It's the Economy, Stupid," KGNU, Boulder, 5 p.m. PST

663. Sept. 5, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, 8 a.m. PST

662. Sept. 3, interview (along with Elliott Spitzer?), "Turning Hard Times into Good Times" with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST Listen to archive here.

661. Sept. 3, interview with Jeanette LaFeve, The People Speak, 6 pm PST

660. Aug. 25, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

659. Aug. 22, interview with Christopher Greene, AMTV Radio, simulcast in audio/video over GoogleHangouts and American Freedom Radio, 1 p.m. PST

658. Aug. 22, interview, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com,
CalChronicle.com, 3 pm PST

657. Aug. 21, interview with Merry and Burl Hall, blogtalkradio.com/envision-this, 5 pm PST

656. Aug. 21, interview with Lori Lundin, America's Radio News Network, 10:30 a.m. ET.

655. Aug. 16, interview with Sinclair Noe, Moneyradio.com, 4 pm PST

654. Aug. 15, interview with Justine Underhill, Prime Interest, Russia Today TV, 1:30 pm PST

653. Aug 14, interview with Jim Goddard, This Week in Money, 4 pm, PST. Listen to archive here, starting at minute 32.

652. Aug. 14, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, 10 a.m. PST

651. Aug. 14, interview with Chuck Morse, irnusaradio.com, 8 am, PST

650. Aug. 13, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV, Switzerland, 9 am PST

649. Aug 7-11, Madison Democracy conference, https://democracyconvention.org/

648. Aug. 6, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PST

647. Aug 5, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 9 am PST

646. Aug 3, interview with Diane Horn, Mind Over Matter show, KEXP radio, 90.3 FM, Seattle, 7:00 a.m. PST

645. July 31, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

644. July 28, Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

643. July 2, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

642. July 2, interview with Arnie Arnesen, 94.7 fm, Concord, NH, 12:30 EST.

641. June 30, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT. Listen to archive here.

640. June 24, interview on RT tv re student debt, 10:30 am PST

639. June 17, interview on The Andy Caldwell Show, 3:30 pm PST

638. June 16, interview with Jason Erb, 5 pm Pacific

637. June 13, interview with Paul Sanford, "Time 4 Hemp-LIVE," http://www.AmericanFreedomRadio.com, 10 am, PST

636. June 6 presentation with Jamie Brown at the Mt. Diablo Peace and Justice Center in Walnut Creek. Info at Favors.org, 7 to 9 pm

635. June 1, interview with Kris Welch, KPFA Los Angeles, 10 am PST

634. May 28, interview with Malihe Razazan, "Your Call" radio, KALW, San Francisco, 10 am PST.

633. May 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

632. May 23 interview with Simit Patel, InformedTrades.com (youtube) 3:30 pm PST

631. May 22, Thousand Oaks, 3 expert panel, "A Parachute For the Fiscal Cliff," University Village 2-4 pm

630. May 22, interview with Jack Rasmus, 11 am PST. Enjoy the interview here.

629. May 22, Guns and Butter show, KPFA, http://www.kpfa.org/archive/id/91790

628. May 14, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

627. May 13, live appearance on RTTV, 3 pm PST Watch it here.

626. May 8, interview with Valli Sharpe-Geisler, Silicon Valley Voice, KKUP, 3 pm PST

625. May 8, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST

624. May 4, interview, Latin Waves with Sylvia Richardson, 10 am PST

623. April 30, Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 1 pm PST

622. April 29, interview with Rob Kall, Bottom Up Radio, 9 am Pacific
Listen to archive here.

621. April 28, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT

620. April 25, interview, the the Dr. Katherine Albrecht Show, 5 pm EDT

619. April 17, interview with Mike Harris, rense.com, 1 pm PDT

618. April 16th, speaker, Valley Democrats United (Democratic Party of San Fernando Valley), Van Nuys, Ca. 7-9pm

617. April 13, interview with Darren Weeks, Govern America, noon Eastern, listen here

616. April 9, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PDT.

615. April 6, phone conference, Justice Party, http://www.justicepartyusa.org/public_banking_conference_call, 9 a.m.

614. April 5, interview, Butler on Business, 11 a.m. EDT

613. April 3, interview with Michael Welch, Global Research News Hour, 8:30 a.m. PDT

612. April 2, interview with Jay Taylor, VoiceAmerica, 12:30 PDT. Listen here.

611. April 1, interview with Brannon Howse, www.worldviewradio.com, 11 a.m. PDT

610. April 1, interview with Scott Harris, Counterpoint,
WPKN Radio, 8:30 pm, ET Listen to archive here.

609. April 1, interview with Margaret Flowers and Kevin Zeese. Watch and listen to archive here, starting at minute 50. Articles based on the interview are at Truthout.org.

608. March 31, interview with Jason Erb, Exposing Faux Capitalism, Oracle Broadcasting, 11 a.m. Pacific

607. March 31, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PDT Listen to the archive here.

606. March 29, interview, The Gary Null Show, 9:30 a.m. Pacific

605. March 28, interview with Stan Monteith, radioliberty.com, 9 pm PDT

604. March 28, radio interview, INN World Report with Tom Kiely, http://feeds.feedburner.com/INNWorldReportRadio 4:30 PDT

603. March 27, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PdT.

602. March 27, interview with Jack Rasmus on PRN, 11 a.m. PDT

601. March 25, interview on the Richard Kaffenberger show, KTOX, Needles, CA. 3:15 PDT

600. March 22, newly available archived radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

599. March 22, interview with James Fetzer, The People Speak Radio, 5-7 pm PDT

598. March 22, interview , Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, Santa Fe, 10 a.m. MST

597. March 12, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

596. March 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, Progressive Radio News Hour, 10 am, PST

595. March 9, Interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 9:30 am PST

594. March 6, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6pm PST. Watch and listen here.

593. March 3, interview with Lateef Kareem Bey, Fix Your Mortgage Mess, 4 pm PST

592. March 2, Interview with Stuart Richardson, Latin Waves, CJSF 90.1FM, 11 am PST

591. Feb. 27, interview with Jim Banks, KGNU, Boulder, 12 pm PST

590. Feb 27, interview with Sinclair Noe, Financial Review, 10 am PST

589. Feb. 25, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

588. Feb. 6, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 11 am PST. Listen to the archive here: http://talkdigitalnetwork.com/2013/02/this-week-in-money-70/

587. Feb. 4, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 11 am PST.

586. Jan. 31, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 5:00 pm PST

585. Jan. 27, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio
network, 10 am PST

584. Jan. 23, interview on KPFK, 8pm PST

583. Jan. 22, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST.

582. Jan. 3, interview with Mary Glenney, WMNF 88.5, Tampa, 3 pm EST

581. Jan. 2, interview, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 5 pm PST

--- 2012 ---

580. Dec. 27, video interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, listen and watch here.

579. Dec. 24, October talk at First Unitarian Church in Portland aired on KBOO radio, http://kboo.fm/, 8:00 am PST

578. Dec. 24, interview with Ron Daniels, the WWRL Morning Show with Mark Riley, wwrl1600.com, 5:05 am PST

577. Dec. 21, interview with Andy Caldwell, TheAndyCaldwellShow.com, KZSB AM1290 Santa Barbara / Ventura and KUHL AM1440 Santa Maria / San Luis Obispo, 3:30 pm PST

576. Dec. 20, interview with Fred Smart, aunetwork.tv, 9 pm EST

575. Dec. 19, interview, Crisis of Reality with Doug Newberry, oraclebroadcasting.com, 1pm EST. Listen here.

574. Dec. 19, interview with Dr. Jack Rasmus, Alternative Visions, Progressive Radio Network, 2 pm EST

573. Dec. 17, The Bev Smith Show, thebevsmithshow.net, 4 pm PST

572. Dec. 15, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen here.

571. Dec. 14, interview with Craig Barnes, Our Times With Craig Barnes, KSFR radio, 9 am PST Listen to the archive here.

570. December 9th, speaker, Mayo Arts Center (10 Mayo Street) in Portland, ME
http://mayostreetarts.org/about-us/where-we-are 7:30-9pm

569. Dec. 7, Vermont's New Economy conference, Vermont College of the Find Arts, Montpelier, VT, 9 am to 4 pm and reception at 4:30. $25
www.global-community.org/neweconomy to register

568. Dec. 5, speaker, Pennsylvania Public Bank Project's Forum on Public Banking, at the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA, 7pm

567. Nov. 26-27, 3rd Annual World Conference on Riba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

566. Nov. 22, presentation before Royal Scottish Academy -- "A Public Bank for Scotland" (here), Riddle's Court, 322 Lawnmarket, Edinburgh EH1 2PG Scotland, 6 pm

565. Nov 8, Healthy Money Summit, speaking with Hazel Henderson at 1-2 pm PST, information here.

564. Sunday, Oct. 28, Keynote Speaker; The Buck Starts Here, 2:00pm, sponsored by the Kairos Occasional Speakers Series & OFOR, Kairos Milwaukie UCC, Milwaukie, OR.

563. Saturday, Oct. 27, Keynote Speaker; OFOR Saturday Symposium: The Buck Starts Here, 10am - 3pm, Molalla, OR

562. Friday-Sunday, Oct. 26-28, Keynote Speaker; Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation Fall Retreat - The Buck Starts Here, Camp Adams, Molalla, OR, Friday, 5pm- Sunday 12 noon

561. Friday, October 26, Invited Commentator; screening of “HEIST” (new documentary about the roots of the American economic crisis), sponsored by First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice Action Groups, Alliance for Democracy, KBOO, Move to Amend, 7:00pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

560. (Oct. 25-28, Bioneers Conference, Portland, OR)
Oct. 25, Keynote Speaker; sponsored by Portland Fellowship of Reconciliation (PFOR) and the First Unitarian Church of Portland's Economic Justice and Peace Action Groups, 7:00-8:30pm, First Unitarian Church, Portland, OR

559. Oct. 24, interview with Per Fagereng, KBOO radio, Portland, 9 am PST

558. Oct. 24, KPFA "Guns and Butter" interview. Listen to archived show here.

557. Oct. 21, speaker at BBQed Oysters and Beer Fundraiser Party for PBI, San Rafael, CA, 4 pm PST

556. Oct. 14, Live Gaiam tv interview appearance. Watch it here free at 7pm EST.

555. Oct. 12, interview with Matt Rothschild of The Progressive, 10 a.m. Central time

554. October 11-14, speaker, Economic Democracy Collaborative, Madison, Wisconsin

553. Oct. 11, radio interview with Norm Stockwell, WORT, 12 pm CST

552. Oct. 9, interview with Kevin Barrett, No Lies Radio, listen to archive here.

551. Oct. 8, interview, "Mountain Hours Revolution Radio" with Wayne Walton, on RBN, 12-1 pm PST

550. Oct. 7, interview with Lloyd D'Aguilar, "Looking Back Looking Forward", http://lookingbacklookingforward.com/, 2 pm EST

549. Sept. 26, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

548. Sept. 25, interview with Dr. Stanley Montieth, radioliberty.com, 3pm PST

547. Sept. 24, interview with Charlie McGrath, Wide Awake News, 6-7 pm PST.

546. Sept. 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

545. Sept. 17 interview along with Hazel Henderson, National Teach In for Occupy Wall Street, http://www.livestream.com/owshdtv 5pm EST

544. Sept. 10, interview with Thomas Taplin, Dukascopy TV (Switzerland), 7 am PST Watch and listen here

543. Sept. 7, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

542. Sept. 6, interview with Douglas Newberry, markettoolbox.tv, 1pm EST. Listen here.

541. Aug 28, interview, the Meria Heller Show, 11 am PST. Listen to archive here. And listen to excellent Meria Heller show here.

540. Aug 26, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, listen to archive here.

539. August 21, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com. Listen to archive here.

538. Aug 20, interview with Kim Greenhouse, It's Rainmaking Time, listen here.

537. Aug 16, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 6 am PST

536. Aug. 14, interview, TheAndyCaldwellshow.com, 4:30pm PST

535. August 13, interview with American Free Press, 1 pm PST

534. July 24, interview along with Victoria Grant, The People Speak, 6pm, PST

533. July 24, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST

532. July 23, interview with Charlie McGrath, wideawakenews.com, 6 pm PST

531. July 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7 pm PST

530. July 22, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

529. July 19, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

528. July 10-12, Speaker, Conference on Social Transformation, Faculty of Economics, Split University, Split Croatia

527. July 10, video interview with Max Keiser, the Keiser Report, on the ESM. Watch it here.

526. July 7, Interview with Phil Mackesy, This Week in Money, TalkDigitalNetwork.com, 3 pm PST

525. July 6, video interview with Dr. Mercola, see it here.

524. June 23, Interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

523. June 21, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Radio Report, 4:30 pm PST

522. June 21, interview on the Gary Null Show, 9:20 am PST

521. June 18, interview with Ken Rose, What Now radio show, KOWS RADIO OCCIDENTAL 107.3 FM, 1 pm PST. Listen to archive here.

520. June 17, interview with Bill Resnick, KBOO radio, 9 am PST

519. June 16 interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST. Listen to archive here.

518. June 9, interview with Sylvia Richardson, Latin Waves, 9:45 am PST. Listen to archive here.

517. June 5, interview, Truth Quest With Melodee, KHEN radio, 7pm PST

516. June 2, interview about Web of Debt, Our Common Ground,http://www.blogtalkradio.com/OCG, 7pm PST

515. June 1, interview with Robert Stark, The Stark Truth listen here.

514. Newly available video of interview on "Moral Politics" -- see it here

513. May 30, interview, The Tim Dahaney Show, ll am PST

512. May 28, interview with Pedro Gatos, "Bringing Light into Darkness", KOOP.ORG, 6 pm CST

511. May 24, interview, Make It Plain With Mark Thompson, SiriusXM Satellite Radio, 2pm PST

510. May 20, interview, Women's View Radio, blogtalkradio.com, 10 am Central Time. Listen here.

509. May 13, interview, www.Blogtalkradio.com/fixyourmortgagemess, 4:15 pm PST

508. May 12, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST Listen here.

507. May 9, seminar, Re-imagining Money and Credit, Art bldg. rm 103, El Camino college, Torrance, Ca. 5-7:30 pm

506. May 8, interview with Mike Harris, republicbroadcasting.org, 9 am EST

505. May 7, radio discussion on "The Myth of Austerity", Connect the Dots, KPFK Los Angeles, 7 am PST. Listen here.

504. May 4, interview The Unsolicited Opinion, republicbroadcasting.org, 8 am PST

503. April 27-28, speaker, Public Banking Institute Conference, Friends Center, Philadelphia. Listen here.

502. April 25, speaker Global Teach-In (globalteachin.com), 12 noon EST

501. April 17, Interview with Leo Steel, http://www.blogtalkradio.com/lasteelshoworg, 8:30 pm EST. Listen here.. 31 minutes in.

500. April 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

499. April 14, interview with Al Korelin, The Korelin Economics Report

498. April 10th-12th Speaker at Claremont Conference, “Creating Money in a Finite World” Claremont, CA . See video here.

497. April 5, interview , This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com) 12:30 PST. Listen to the archive here.

496. April 3, speaker at COMER with Paul Hellyer, "Escape From the Web of Debt," Toronto, 7:30 pm

495. March 27, speaker on "Why are we so Broke? New ways to look at the Finances of our State and City," League of Women Voters luncheon, San Diego, 12 noon

494.5 March 24, radio interview, Mandelman Matters. Listen here.

494. March 17, speaker via skype, SCADS conference, London

493. March 15, interview with Per Fagereng, Fight the Empire, KBOO radio, 9:30 am PST

492. March 15, speaker, San Rafael City Hall 6 pm

491. March 13, speaker at Sergio Lub's house, Walnut Creek, info at Favors.org, 6pm

490. March 11, speaker, TedxNewWallStreet. See it here.

489. March 10, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

488. March 6, interview with Melinda Pillsbury-Foster, http://radio.rumormillnews.com/podcast/, 11 am PST

487. Feb. 25, interview with Martin Andelman, http://www.mandelman.ml-implode.com, 9:30 am PST

486. Feb. 25, interview, This Week In Money with Phil Mackesy (howestreet.com), 3 pm PST

485. Feb. 25, interview on CIVL Radio, Latin Waves, How Greece Could Take Down Wall Street, 11:30am PST

484. Feb 23, interview with Thomas Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

483. Feb. 17, featured speaker, Public Banking in America weekly call, 9 am PST

482. Feb. 11, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

481. Feb. 8, interview with Mike Beevers, KFCF Fresno, 4:30 pm PST

480. Feb. 7, interview with Kevin Barrett, NoLiesRadio.org, 9 am PST; listen to archive here

479. Feb. 6, participant, Occupiers and Wells Fargo Executives Gather to Discuss the American Foreclosure Crisis, The Center of Nonprofit Management at California Endowment Building 1000 N. Alameda, Los Angeles, meeting 3 pm and press conference 5:30 pm

478. Feb. 2, interview with Tom Kiely, INN World Report Radio, 7:30 pm EST

477. Feb. 2, interview with Patrick Timpone, oneradionetwork.com, naturalnewsradio.com. Listen to archive here

476. Jan. 31, interview, Liberty Coins and Precious Metals, 9 am PST

475. Jan. 27, interview KPFA, Project Censored, 8:30 am PST

474. Jan. 27, FILMS4CHANGE-INSIDEJOB, panel speaker, Edye Second Space, Santa Monica Performing Arts Center, 7:30 pm

473. Jan 22, interview with Dave Hodges, The Common Sense Show, 7:30 pm PST. Listen live here.

472. Jan. 20, interview with Mike Harris, The Republic Broadcasting Network, 7 am PST

471. Jan. 16, interview with Rob Lorei, WMNF fm, Tampa, 2 pm PST

470. Jan. 14, interview with Stephen Lendman, progressive radio network, 10 am PST

469. Jan. 11, interview with Jeff Rense, rense.com, 8pm PST

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How Congress Could Fix Its Budget Woes, Permanently

As Congress struggles through one budget crisis after another, it is becoming increasingly evident that austerity doesn't work. We cannot possibly pay off a $16 trillion debt by tightening our belts, slashing public services, and raising taxes. Historically, when the deficit has been reduced, the money supply has been reduced along with it, throwing the economy into recession. After a thorough analysis of statistics from dozens of countries forced to apply austerity plans by the World Bank and IMF, former World Bank chief economist Joseph Stiglitz called austerity plans a “suicide pact.” 

Congress already has in its hands the power to solve the nation’s budget challenges – today and permanently. But it has been artificially constrained from using that power by misguided economic dogma, dogma generated by the interests it serves.  We have bought into the idea that there is not enough money to feed and house our population, rebuild our roads and bridges, or fund our most important programs -- that there is no alternative but to slash budgets and deficits if we are to survive. We have a mountain of critical work to do, improving our schools, rebuilding our infrastructure, pursuing our research goals, and so forth. And with millions of unemployed and underemployed, the people are there to do it. What we don’t have, we are told, is just the money to bring workers and resources together.

But we do have it.  Or we could.

Money today is simply a legal agreement between parties. Nothing backs it but “the full faith and credit of the United States.” The United States could issue its credit directly to fund its own budget, just as our forebears did in the American colonies and as Abraham Lincoln did in the Civil War.

Any serious discussion of this alternative has long been taboo among economists and politicians. But in a landmark speech on February 6, 2013, Adair Turner, chairman of Britain’s Financial Services Authority, broke the taboo with a historic speech recommending that approach. According to a February 7th article in Reuters, Turner is one of the most influential financial policy makers in the world.  His recommendation was supported by a 75-page paper explaining why handing out newly-created money to citizens and governments could solve economic woes globally and would not lead to hyperinflation.

Our Money Exists Only at the Will and Pleasure of Banks

Government-issued money would work because it addresses the problem at its source. Today, we have no permanent money supply. People and governments are drowning in debt because our money comes into existence only as a debt to banks at interest. As Robert Hemphill of the Atlanta Federal Reserve observed in the 1930s:

We are completely dependent on the commercial banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash or credit.  If the banks create ample synthetic money, we are prosperous; if not, we starve.

In the U.S. monetary system, the only money that is not borrowed from banks is the “base money” or “monetary base” created by the Treasury and the Federal Reserve (the Fed). The Treasury creates only the tiny portion consisting of coins. All of the rest is created by the Fed.

Despite its name, the Fed is at best only quasi-federal; and most of the money it creates is electronic rather than paper. We the people have no access to this money, which is not tur ned over to the government or the people but goes directly into the reserve accounts of private banks at the Fed.

It goes there and it stays there. Except for the small amount of “vault cash” available for withdrawal from commercial banks, bank reserves do not leave the doors of the central bank. According to Peter Stella, former head of the Central Banking and Monetary and Foreign Exchange Operations Divisions at the International Monetary Fund:

[I]n a modern monetary system – fiat money, floating exchange rate world – there is absolutely no correlation between bank reserves and lending. . . . [B]anks do not lend “reserves”. . . .

Whether commercial banks let the reserves they have acquired through QE sit “idle” or lend them out in the internet bank market 10,000 times in one day among themselves, the aggregate reserves at the central bank at the end of that day will be the same.

Banks do not lend their reserves to us, but they do lend them to each other. The reserves are what they need to clear checks between banks. Reserves move from one reserve account to another; but the total money in bank reserve accounts remains unchanged, unless the Fed itself issues new money or extinguishes it.

The base money to which we have no access includes that created on a computer screen through “quantitative easing” (QE), which now exceeds $3 trillion. That explains why QE has not driven the economy into hyperinflation, as the deficit hawks have long predicted; and why it has not created jobs, as was its purported mission. The Fed’s QE money simply does not get into the circulating money supply at all.

What we the people have in our bank accounts is a mere reflection of the base money that is the exclusive domain of the bankers’ club. Banks borrow from the Fed and each other at near-zero rates, then lend this money to us at 4% or 8% or 30%, depending on what the market will bear.  Like in a house of mirrors, the Fed’s “base money” gets multiplied over and over whenever “bank credit” is deposited and relent; and that illusory house of mirrors is what we call our money supply.

We Need “Quantitative Easing” for the People

The quantitative easing engaged in by central banks today is not what UK Professor Richard Werner intended when he invented the term. Werner advised the Japanese in the 1990s, when they were caught in a spiral of “debt deflation” like the one we are struggling with now. What he had in mind was credit creation by the central bank for productive purposes in the real, physical economy. But like central banks now, the Bank of Japan simply directed its QE firehose at the banks. Werner complains:

[A]ll QE is doing is to help banks increase the liquidity of their portfolios by getting rid of longer-dated and slightly less liquid assets and raising cash. . . . Reserve expansion is a standard monetarist policy and required no new label.

The QE he recommended was more along the lines of the money-printing engaged in by the American settlers in colonial times and by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. The colonists’ paper scrip and Lincoln’s “greenbacks” consisted, not of bank loans, but of paper receipts from the government acknowledging goods and services delivered to the government. The receipts circulated as money in the economy, and in the colonies they were accepted in the payment of taxes. 

The best of these models was in Benjamin Franklin’s colony of Pennsylvania, where government-issued money got into the economy by way of loans issued by a publicly-owned bank. Except for an excise tax on liquor, the government was funded entirely without taxes; there was no government debt; and price inflation did not result. In 1938, Dr. Richard A. Lester, an economist at Princeton University, wrote, “The price level during the 52 years prior to the American Revolution and while Pennsylvania was on a paper standard was more stable than the American price level has been during any succeeding fifty-year period.” 

The Inflation Conundrum

The threat of price inflation is the excuse invariably used for discouraging this sort of “irresponsible” monetary policy today, based on the Milton Friedman dictum that “inflation is everywhere and always a monetary phenomenon.” When the quantity of money goes up, says the theory, more money will be chasing fewer goods, driving prices up. 

What it overlooks is the supply side of the equation. As long as workers are sitting idle and materials are available, increased “demand” will put workers to work creating more “supply.” Supply will rise along with demand, and prices will remain stable. 

True, today these additional workers might be in China or they might be robots. But the principle still holds: if we want the increased supply necessary to satisfy the needs of the people and the economy, more money must first be injected into the economy.  Demand drives supply.  People must have money in their pockets before they can shop, stimulating increased production.  Production doesn’t need as many human workers as it once did. To get enough money in the economy to drive the needed supply, it might be time to issue a national dividend divided equally among the people.

Increased demand will drive up prices only when the economy hits full productive capacitys. It is at that point, and not before, that taxes may need to be levied—not to fund the federal budget, but to prevent “overheating” and keep prices stable. Overheating in the current economy could be a long time coming, however, since according to the Fed’s figures, $4 trillion needs to be added into the money supply just to get it back to where it was in 2008.

Taxes might be avoided altogether, if excess funds were pulled out with fees charged for various government services. A good place to start might be with banking services rendered by publicly-owned banks that returned their profits to the public.

The Road to Prosperity

The Federal Reserve has lavished over $13 trillion in computer-generated bail-out money on the banks, and still the economy is flagging and the debt ceiling refuses to go away. If this money had been pumped into the real economy instead of into the black hole of the private banking system, we might have a thriving economy today.

We are waking up from the long night of our delusion. We do not need to follow the prevailing economic orthodoxies, which have consistently failed and are not corroborated by empirical data.  We need a permanent money supply, and the money must come from somewhere. It is the right and duty of government to provide a money supply that is adequate and sustainable.

It is also the duty of government to provide the public services necessary for a secure and prosperous life for its people. As Thomas Edison observed in the 1920s, if the government can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. Both are backed by “the full faith and credit of the United States.” The government can pay for all the services its people need and eliminate budget crises permanently, simply by issuing the dollars to pay for them, debt-free and interest-free.

Ellen Brown

Ellen Brown developed her research skills as an attorney practicing civil litigation in Los Angeles. In Web of Debt, her latest of eleven books, she turns those skills to an analysis of the Federal Reserve and “the money trust.” She shows how this private cartel has usurped the power to create money from the people themselves, and how we the people can get it back. She is president of the Public Banking Institute, http://PublicBankingInstitute. org , and has websites at http://WebofDebt.com and http://EllenBrown.com

How Congress Could Fix Its Budget Woes, Permanently

As Congress struggles through one budget crisis after another, it is becoming increasingly evident that austerity doesn't work. We cannot possibly pay off a $16 trillion debt by tightening our belts, slashing public services, and raising taxes. Historically, when the deficit has been reduced, the money supply has been reduced along with it, throwing the economy into recession. After a thorough analysis of statistics from dozens of countries forced to apply austerity plans by the World Bank and IMF, former World Bank chief economist Joseph Stiglitz called austerity plans a “suicide pact.” 

Congress already has in its hands the power to solve the nation’s budget challenges – today and permanently. But it has been artificially constrained from using that power by misguided economic dogma, dogma generated by the interests it serves.  We have bought into the idea that there is not enough money to feed and house our population, rebuild our roads and bridges, or fund our most important programs -- that there is no alternative but to slash budgets and deficits if we are to survive. We have a mountain of critical work to do, improving our schools, rebuilding our infrastructure, pursuing our research goals, and so forth. And with millions of unemployed and underemployed, the people are there to do it. What we don’t have, we are told, is just the money to bring workers and resources together.

But we do have it.  Or we could.

Money today is simply a legal agreement between parties. Nothing backs it but “the full faith and credit of the United States.” The United States could issue its credit directly to fund its own budget, just as our forebears did in the American colonies and as Abraham Lincoln did in the Civil War.

Any serious discussion of this alternative has long been taboo among economists and politicians. But in a landmark speech on February 6, 2013, Adair Turner, chairman of Britain’s Financial Services Authority, broke the taboo with a historic speech recommending that approach. According to a February 7th article in Reuters, Turner is one of the most influential financial policy makers in the world.  His recommendation was supported by a 75-page paper explaining why handing out newly-created money to citizens and governments could solve economic woes globally and would not lead to hyperinflation.

Our Money Exists Only at the Will and Pleasure of Banks

Government-issued money would work because it addresses the problem at its source. Today, we have no permanent money supply. People and governments are drowning in debt because our money comes into existence only as a debt to banks at interest. As Robert Hemphill of the Atlanta Federal Reserve observed in the 1930s:

We are completely dependent on the commercial banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash or credit.  If the banks create ample synthetic money, we are prosperous; if not, we starve.

In the U.S. monetary system, the only money that is not borrowed from banks is the “base money” or “monetary base” created by the Treasury and the Federal Reserve (the Fed). The Treasury creates only the tiny portion consisting of coins. All of the rest is created by the Fed.

Despite its name, the Fed is at best only quasi-federal; and most of the money it creates is electronic rather than paper. We the people have no access to this money, which is not tur ned over to the government or the people but goes directly into the reserve accounts of private banks at the Fed.

It goes there and it stays there. Except for the small amount of “vault cash” available for withdrawal from commercial banks, bank reserves do not leave the doors of the central bank. According to Peter Stella, former head of the Central Banking and Monetary and Foreign Exchange Operations Divisions at the International Monetary Fund:

[I]n a modern monetary system – fiat money, floating exchange rate world – there is absolutely no correlation between bank reserves and lending. . . . [B]anks do not lend “reserves”. . . .

Whether commercial banks let the reserves they have acquired through QE sit “idle” or lend them out in the internet bank market 10,000 times in one day among themselves, the aggregate reserves at the central bank at the end of that day will be the same.

Banks do not lend their reserves to us, but they do lend them to each other. The reserves are what they need to clear checks between banks. Reserves move from one reserve account to another; but the total money in bank reserve accounts remains unchanged, unless the Fed itself issues new money or extinguishes it.

The base money to which we have no access includes that created on a computer screen through “quantitative easing” (QE), which now exceeds $3 trillion. That explains why QE has not driven the economy into hyperinflation, as the deficit hawks have long predicted; and why it has not created jobs, as was its purported mission. The Fed’s QE money simply does not get into the circulating money supply at all.

What we the people have in our bank accounts is a mere reflection of the base money that is the exclusive domain of the bankers’ club. Banks borrow from the Fed and each other at near-zero rates, then lend this money to us at 4% or 8% or 30%, depending on what the market will bear.  Like in a house of mirrors, the Fed’s “base money” gets multiplied over and over whenever “bank credit” is deposited and relent; and that illusory house of mirrors is what we call our money supply.

We Need “Quantitative Easing” for the People

The quantitative easing engaged in by central banks today is not what UK Professor Richard Werner intended when he invented the term. Werner advised the Japanese in the 1990s, when they were caught in a spiral of “debt deflation” like the one we are struggling with now. What he had in mind was credit creation by the central bank for productive purposes in the real, physical economy. But like central banks now, the Bank of Japan simply directed its QE firehose at the banks. Werner complains:

[A]ll QE is doing is to help banks increase the liquidity of their portfolios by getting rid of longer-dated and slightly less liquid assets and raising cash. . . . Reserve expansion is a standard monetarist policy and required no new label.

The QE he recommended was more along the lines of the money-printing engaged in by the American settlers in colonial times and by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. The colonists’ paper scrip and Lincoln’s “greenbacks” consisted, not of bank loans, but of paper receipts from the government acknowledging goods and services delivered to the government. The receipts circulated as money in the economy, and in the colonies they were accepted in the payment of taxes. 

The best of these models was in Benjamin Franklin’s colony of Pennsylvania, where government-issued money got into the economy by way of loans issued by a publicly-owned bank. Except for an excise tax on liquor, the government was funded entirely without taxes; there was no government debt; and price inflation did not result. In 1938, Dr. Richard A. Lester, an economist at Princeton University, wrote, “The price level during the 52 years prior to the American Revolution and while Pennsylvania was on a paper standard was more stable than the American price level has been during any succeeding fifty-year period.” 

The Inflation Conundrum

The threat of price inflation is the excuse invariably used for discouraging this sort of “irresponsible” monetary policy today, based on the Milton Friedman dictum that “inflation is everywhere and always a monetary phenomenon.” When the quantity of money goes up, says the theory, more money will be chasing fewer goods, driving prices up. 

What it overlooks is the supply side of the equation. As long as workers are sitting idle and materials are available, increased “demand” will put workers to work creating more “supply.” Supply will rise along with demand, and prices will remain stable. 

True, today these additional workers might be in China or they might be robots. But the principle still holds: if we want the increased supply necessary to satisfy the needs of the people and the economy, more money must first be injected into the economy.  Demand drives supply.  People must have money in their pockets before they can shop, stimulating increased production.  Production doesn’t need as many human workers as it once did. To get enough money in the economy to drive the needed supply, it might be time to issue a national dividend divided equally among the people.

Increased demand will drive up prices only when the economy hits full productive capacitys. It is at that point, and not before, that taxes may need to be levied—not to fund the federal budget, but to prevent “overheating” and keep prices stable. Overheating in the current economy could be a long time coming, however, since according to the Fed’s figures, $4 trillion needs to be added into the money supply just to get it back to where it was in 2008.

Taxes might be avoided altogether, if excess funds were pulled out with fees charged for various government services. A good place to start might be with banking services rendered by publicly-owned banks that returned their profits to the public.

The Road to Prosperity

The Federal Reserve has lavished over $13 trillion in computer-generated bail-out money on the banks, and still the economy is flagging and the debt ceiling refuses to go away. If this money had been pumped into the real economy instead of into the black hole of the private banking system, we might have a thriving economy today.

We are waking up from the long night of our delusion. We do not need to follow the prevailing economic orthodoxies, which have consistently failed and are not corroborated by empirical data.  We need a permanent money supply, and the money must come from somewhere. It is the right and duty of government to provide a money supply that is adequate and sustainable.

It is also the duty of government to provide the public services necessary for a secure and prosperous life for its people. As Thomas Edison observed in the 1920s, if the government can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. Both are backed by “the full faith and credit of the United States.” The government can pay for all the services its people need and eliminate budget crises permanently, simply by issuing the dollars to pay for them, debt-free and interest-free.

Ellen Brown

Ellen Brown developed her research skills as an attorney practicing civil litigation in Los Angeles. In Web of Debt, her latest of eleven books, she turns those skills to an analysis of the Federal Reserve and “the money trust.” She shows how this private cartel has usurped the power to create money from the people themselves, and how we the people can get it back. She is president of the Public Banking Institute, http://PublicBankingInstitute. org , and has websites at http://WebofDebt.com and http://EllenBrown.com

A True Survival Story: “Taking Their Possessions and Some Seeds, They Had Retreated Ever...

When Josef Stalin instituted a campaign of purging dissidents in the 1930′s, some 17 million people were left dead or missing by the time it was all said and done.

Had you been targeted for extermination during this Great Purge, your chances of survival very rapidly approached zero.

Most became victims when their government classified them as enemies of the state.

Some, however, and against all odds, found a way to survive.

This forest [Russian Taiga] is the last and greatest of Earth’s wildernesses. It stretches from the furthest tip of Russia’s arctic regions as far south as Mongolia, and east from the Urals to the Pacific: five million square miles of nothingness, with a population, outside a handful of towns, that amounts to only a few thousand people.

Thus it was in the remote south of the forest in the summer of 1978. A helicopter sent to find a safe spot to land a party of geologists was skimming the treeline a hundred or so miles from the Mongolian border when it dropped into the thickly wooded valley of an unnamed tributary of the Abakan, a seething ribbon of water rushing through dangerous terrain. The valley walls were narrow, with sides that were close to vertical in places, and the skinny pine and birch trees swaying in the rotors’ downdraft were so thickly clustered that there was no chance of finding a spot to set the aircraft down. But, peering intently through his windscreen in search of a landing place, the pilot saw something that should not have been there. It was a clearing, 6,000 feet up a mountainside, wedged between the pine and larch and scored with what looked like long, dark furrows. The baffled helicopter crew made several passes before reluctantly concluding that this was evidence of human habitation—a garden that, from the size and shape of the clearing, must have been there for a long time.

It was an astounding discovery. The mountain was more than 150 miles from the nearest settlement, in a spot that had never been explored. The Soviet authorities had no records of anyone living in the district.

As the intruders scrambled up the mountain, heading for the spot pinpointed by their pilots, they began to come across signs of human activity: a rough path, a staff, a log laid across a stream, and finally a small shed filled with birch-bark containers of cut-up dried potatoes.

The sight that greeted the geologists as they entered the cabin was like something from the middle ages. Jerry-built from whatever materials came to hand, the dwelling was not much more than a burrow—”a low, soot-blackened log kennel that was as cold as a cellar,” with a floor consisting of potato peel and pine-nut shells. Looking around in the dim light, the visitors saw that it consisted of a single room. It was cramped, musty and indescribably filthy, propped up by sagging joists—and, astonishingly, home to a family of five.

lykovs-homeThe Lykovs lived in this hand-built log cabin, lit by a single window “the size of a backpack pocket” and warmed by a smoky wood-fired stove.

Led by Pismenskaya, the scientists backed hurriedly out of the hut and retreated to a spot a few yards away, where they took out some provisions and began to eat. After about half an hour, the door of the cabin creaked open, and the old man and his two daughters emerged—no longer hysterical and, though still obviously frightened, “frankly curious.” Warily, the three strange figures approached and sat down with their visitors, rejecting everything that they were offered—jam, tea, bread—with a muttered, “We are not allowed that!” When Pismenskaya asked, “Have you ever eaten bread?” the old man answered: “I have. But they have not. They have never seen it.” At least he was intelligible. The daughters spoke a language distorted by a lifetime of isolation. “When the sisters talked to each other, it sounded like a slow, blurred cooing.”

Slowly, over several visits, the full story of the family emerged. The old man’s name was Karp Lykov, and he was an Old Believer—a member of a fundamentalist Russian Orthodox sect, worshiping in a style unchanged since the 17th century. Old Believers had been persecuted since the days of Peter the Great, and Lykov talked about it as though it had happened only yesterday; for him, Peter was a personal enemy and “the anti-Christ in human form”—a point he insisted had been amply proved by Tsar’s campaign to modernize Russia by forcibly “chopping off the beards of Christians.” But these centuries-old hatreds were conflated with more recent grievances; Karp was prone to complain in the same breath about a merchant who had refused to make a gift of 26poods [940 pounds] of potatoes to the Old Believers sometime around 1900.

Things had only got worse for the Lykov family when the atheist Bolsheviks took power. Under the Soviets, isolated Old Believer communities that had fled to Siberia to escape persecution began to retreat ever further from civilization. During the purges of the 1930s, with Christianity itself under assault, a Communist patrol had shot Lykov’s brother on the outskirts of their village while Lykov knelt working beside him. He had responded by scooping up his family and bolting into forest.

That was in 1936, and there were only four Lykovs then—Karp; his wife, Akulina; a son named Savin, 9 years old, and Natalia, a daughter who was only 2. Taking their possessions and some seeds, they had retreated ever deeper into the taiga, building themselves a succession of crude dwelling places, until at last they had fetched up in this desolate spot. Two more children had been born in the wild—Dmitry in 1940 and Agafia in 1943—and neither of the youngest Lykov children had ever seen a human being who was not a member of their family. All that Agafia and Dmitry knew of the outside world they learned entirely from their parents’ stories. The family’s principal entertainment, the Russian journalist Vasily Peskov noted, “was for everyone to recount their dreams.”

The Lykov children knew there were places called cities where humans lived crammed together in tall buildings. They had heard there were countries other than Russia. But such concepts were no more than abstractions to them. Their only reading matter was prayer books and an ancient family Bible. Akulina had used the gospels to teach her children to read and write, using sharpened birch sticks dipped into honeysuckle juice as pen and ink.

lykovs-dmitry-savin
Dmitry (left) and Savin in the Siberian summer

lykovs-sistersAgafia Lykova (left) with her sister, Natalia.

Isolation made survival in the wilderness close to impossible. Dependent solely on their own resources, the Lykovs struggled to replace the few things they had brought into the taiga with them. They fashioned birch-bark galoshes in place of shoes. Clothes were patched and repatched until they fell apart, then replaced with hemp cloth grown from seed.

The Lykovs had carried a crude spinning wheel and, incredibly, the components of a loom into the taiga with them—moving these from place to place as they gradually went further into the wilderness must have required many long and arduous journeys—but they had no technology for replacing metal. A couple of kettles served them well for many years, but when rust finally overcame them, the only replacements they could fashion came from birch bark. Since these could not be placed in a fire, it became far harder to cook. By the time the Lykovs were discovered, their staple diet was potato patties mixed with ground rye and hemp seeds.

In some respects, Peskov makes clear, the taiga did offer some abundance: “Beside the dwelling ran a clear, cold stream. Stands of larch, spruce, pine and birch yielded all that anyone could take…. Bilberries and raspberries were close to hand, firewood as well, and pine nuts fell right on the roof.”

lykov-homesteadThe Lykovs’ homestead seen from a Soviet reconnaissance plane, 1980.

Yet the Lykovs lived permanently on the edge of famine. It was not until the late 1950s, when Dmitry reached manhood, that they first trapped animals for their meat and skins. Lacking guns and even bows, they could hunt only by digging traps or pursuing prey across the mountains until the animals collapsed from exhaustion. Dmitry built up astonishing endurance, and could hunt barefoot in winter, sometimes returning to the hut after several days, having slept in the open in 40 degrees of frost, a young elk across his shoulders. More often than not, though, there was no meat, and their diet gradually became more monotonous. Wild animals destroyed their crop of carrots, and Agafia recalled the late 1950s as “the hungry years.” “We ate the rowanberry leaf,” she said,

roots, grass, mushrooms, potato tops, and bark, We were hungry all the time. Every year we held a council to decide whether to eat everything up or leave some for seed.

Famine was an ever-present danger in these circumstances, and in 1961 it snowed in June. The hard frost killed everything growing in their garden, and by spring the family had been reduced to eating shoes and bark. Akulina chose to see her children fed, and that year she died of starvation. The rest of the family were saved by what they regarded as a miracle: a single grain of rye sprouted in their pea patch. The Lykovs put up a fence around the shoot and guarded it zealously night and day to keep off mice and squirrels. At harvest time, the solitary spike yielded 18 grains, and from this they painstakingly rebuilt their rye crop.

Perhaps the saddest aspect of the Lykovs’ strange story was the rapidity with which the family went into decline after they re-established contact with the outside world. In the fall of 1981, three of the four children followed their mother to the grave within a few days of one another. According to Peskov, their deaths were not, as might have been expected, the result of exposure to diseases to which they had no immunity. Both Savin and Natalia suffered from kidney failure, most likely a result of their harsh diet. But Dmitry died of pneumonia, which might have begun as an infection he acquired from his new friends.

His death shook the geologists, who tried desperately to save him. They offered to call in a helicopter and have him evacuated to a hospital. But Dmitry, in extremis, would abandon neither his family nor the religion he had practiced all his life. “We are not allowed that,” he whispered just before he died. “A man lives for howsoever God grants.”

When all three Lykovs had been buried, the geologists attempted to talk Karp and Agafia into leaving the forest and returning to be with relatives who had survived the persecutions of the purge years, and who still lived on in the same old villages. But neither of the survivors would hear of it. They rebuilt their old cabin, but stayed close to their old home.

Source: These excerpts have been made available by The Smithsonian Institution and shared for the increase and diffusion of knowledge

The Lykovs had the clothes on their backs, some personal possessions, and some basic supplies when they fled the Purge.

They made it in one of the most inhospitable regions in the world for forty years.

Despite the challenges and regardless of the odds, humans are built to survive.

A True Survival Story: “Taking Their Possessions and Some Seeds, They Had Retreated Ever...

When Josef Stalin instituted a campaign of purging dissidents in the 1930′s, some 17 million people were left dead or missing by the time it was all said and done.

Had you been targeted for extermination during this Great Purge, your chances of survival very rapidly approached zero.

Most became victims when their government classified them as enemies of the state.

Some, however, and against all odds, found a way to survive.

This forest [Russian Taiga] is the last and greatest of Earth’s wildernesses. It stretches from the furthest tip of Russia’s arctic regions as far south as Mongolia, and east from the Urals to the Pacific: five million square miles of nothingness, with a population, outside a handful of towns, that amounts to only a few thousand people.

Thus it was in the remote south of the forest in the summer of 1978. A helicopter sent to find a safe spot to land a party of geologists was skimming the treeline a hundred or so miles from the Mongolian border when it dropped into the thickly wooded valley of an unnamed tributary of the Abakan, a seething ribbon of water rushing through dangerous terrain. The valley walls were narrow, with sides that were close to vertical in places, and the skinny pine and birch trees swaying in the rotors’ downdraft were so thickly clustered that there was no chance of finding a spot to set the aircraft down. But, peering intently through his windscreen in search of a landing place, the pilot saw something that should not have been there. It was a clearing, 6,000 feet up a mountainside, wedged between the pine and larch and scored with what looked like long, dark furrows. The baffled helicopter crew made several passes before reluctantly concluding that this was evidence of human habitation—a garden that, from the size and shape of the clearing, must have been there for a long time.

It was an astounding discovery. The mountain was more than 150 miles from the nearest settlement, in a spot that had never been explored. The Soviet authorities had no records of anyone living in the district.

As the intruders scrambled up the mountain, heading for the spot pinpointed by their pilots, they began to come across signs of human activity: a rough path, a staff, a log laid across a stream, and finally a small shed filled with birch-bark containers of cut-up dried potatoes.

The sight that greeted the geologists as they entered the cabin was like something from the middle ages. Jerry-built from whatever materials came to hand, the dwelling was not much more than a burrow—”a low, soot-blackened log kennel that was as cold as a cellar,” with a floor consisting of potato peel and pine-nut shells. Looking around in the dim light, the visitors saw that it consisted of a single room. It was cramped, musty and indescribably filthy, propped up by sagging joists—and, astonishingly, home to a family of five.

lykovs-homeThe Lykovs lived in this hand-built log cabin, lit by a single window “the size of a backpack pocket” and warmed by a smoky wood-fired stove.

Led by Pismenskaya, the scientists backed hurriedly out of the hut and retreated to a spot a few yards away, where they took out some provisions and began to eat. After about half an hour, the door of the cabin creaked open, and the old man and his two daughters emerged—no longer hysterical and, though still obviously frightened, “frankly curious.” Warily, the three strange figures approached and sat down with their visitors, rejecting everything that they were offered—jam, tea, bread—with a muttered, “We are not allowed that!” When Pismenskaya asked, “Have you ever eaten bread?” the old man answered: “I have. But they have not. They have never seen it.” At least he was intelligible. The daughters spoke a language distorted by a lifetime of isolation. “When the sisters talked to each other, it sounded like a slow, blurred cooing.”

Slowly, over several visits, the full story of the family emerged. The old man’s name was Karp Lykov, and he was an Old Believer—a member of a fundamentalist Russian Orthodox sect, worshiping in a style unchanged since the 17th century. Old Believers had been persecuted since the days of Peter the Great, and Lykov talked about it as though it had happened only yesterday; for him, Peter was a personal enemy and “the anti-Christ in human form”—a point he insisted had been amply proved by Tsar’s campaign to modernize Russia by forcibly “chopping off the beards of Christians.” But these centuries-old hatreds were conflated with more recent grievances; Karp was prone to complain in the same breath about a merchant who had refused to make a gift of 26poods [940 pounds] of potatoes to the Old Believers sometime around 1900.

Things had only got worse for the Lykov family when the atheist Bolsheviks took power. Under the Soviets, isolated Old Believer communities that had fled to Siberia to escape persecution began to retreat ever further from civilization. During the purges of the 1930s, with Christianity itself under assault, a Communist patrol had shot Lykov’s brother on the outskirts of their village while Lykov knelt working beside him. He had responded by scooping up his family and bolting into forest.

That was in 1936, and there were only four Lykovs then—Karp; his wife, Akulina; a son named Savin, 9 years old, and Natalia, a daughter who was only 2. Taking their possessions and some seeds, they had retreated ever deeper into the taiga, building themselves a succession of crude dwelling places, until at last they had fetched up in this desolate spot. Two more children had been born in the wild—Dmitry in 1940 and Agafia in 1943—and neither of the youngest Lykov children had ever seen a human being who was not a member of their family. All that Agafia and Dmitry knew of the outside world they learned entirely from their parents’ stories. The family’s principal entertainment, the Russian journalist Vasily Peskov noted, “was for everyone to recount their dreams.”

The Lykov children knew there were places called cities where humans lived crammed together in tall buildings. They had heard there were countries other than Russia. But such concepts were no more than abstractions to them. Their only reading matter was prayer books and an ancient family Bible. Akulina had used the gospels to teach her children to read and write, using sharpened birch sticks dipped into honeysuckle juice as pen and ink.

lykovs-dmitry-savin
Dmitry (left) and Savin in the Siberian summer

lykovs-sistersAgafia Lykova (left) with her sister, Natalia.

Isolation made survival in the wilderness close to impossible. Dependent solely on their own resources, the Lykovs struggled to replace the few things they had brought into the taiga with them. They fashioned birch-bark galoshes in place of shoes. Clothes were patched and repatched until they fell apart, then replaced with hemp cloth grown from seed.

The Lykovs had carried a crude spinning wheel and, incredibly, the components of a loom into the taiga with them—moving these from place to place as they gradually went further into the wilderness must have required many long and arduous journeys—but they had no technology for replacing metal. A couple of kettles served them well for many years, but when rust finally overcame them, the only replacements they could fashion came from birch bark. Since these could not be placed in a fire, it became far harder to cook. By the time the Lykovs were discovered, their staple diet was potato patties mixed with ground rye and hemp seeds.

In some respects, Peskov makes clear, the taiga did offer some abundance: “Beside the dwelling ran a clear, cold stream. Stands of larch, spruce, pine and birch yielded all that anyone could take…. Bilberries and raspberries were close to hand, firewood as well, and pine nuts fell right on the roof.”

lykov-homesteadThe Lykovs’ homestead seen from a Soviet reconnaissance plane, 1980.

Yet the Lykovs lived permanently on the edge of famine. It was not until the late 1950s, when Dmitry reached manhood, that they first trapped animals for their meat and skins. Lacking guns and even bows, they could hunt only by digging traps or pursuing prey across the mountains until the animals collapsed from exhaustion. Dmitry built up astonishing endurance, and could hunt barefoot in winter, sometimes returning to the hut after several days, having slept in the open in 40 degrees of frost, a young elk across his shoulders. More often than not, though, there was no meat, and their diet gradually became more monotonous. Wild animals destroyed their crop of carrots, and Agafia recalled the late 1950s as “the hungry years.” “We ate the rowanberry leaf,” she said,

roots, grass, mushrooms, potato tops, and bark, We were hungry all the time. Every year we held a council to decide whether to eat everything up or leave some for seed.

Famine was an ever-present danger in these circumstances, and in 1961 it snowed in June. The hard frost killed everything growing in their garden, and by spring the family had been reduced to eating shoes and bark. Akulina chose to see her children fed, and that year she died of starvation. The rest of the family were saved by what they regarded as a miracle: a single grain of rye sprouted in their pea patch. The Lykovs put up a fence around the shoot and guarded it zealously night and day to keep off mice and squirrels. At harvest time, the solitary spike yielded 18 grains, and from this they painstakingly rebuilt their rye crop.

Perhaps the saddest aspect of the Lykovs’ strange story was the rapidity with which the family went into decline after they re-established contact with the outside world. In the fall of 1981, three of the four children followed their mother to the grave within a few days of one another. According to Peskov, their deaths were not, as might have been expected, the result of exposure to diseases to which they had no immunity. Both Savin and Natalia suffered from kidney failure, most likely a result of their harsh diet. But Dmitry died of pneumonia, which might have begun as an infection he acquired from his new friends.

His death shook the geologists, who tried desperately to save him. They offered to call in a helicopter and have him evacuated to a hospital. But Dmitry, in extremis, would abandon neither his family nor the religion he had practiced all his life. “We are not allowed that,” he whispered just before he died. “A man lives for howsoever God grants.”

When all three Lykovs had been buried, the geologists attempted to talk Karp and Agafia into leaving the forest and returning to be with relatives who had survived the persecutions of the purge years, and who still lived on in the same old villages. But neither of the survivors would hear of it. They rebuilt their old cabin, but stayed close to their old home.

Source: These excerpts have been made available by The Smithsonian Institution and shared for the increase and diffusion of knowledge

The Lykovs had the clothes on their backs, some personal possessions, and some basic supplies when they fled the Purge.

They made it in one of the most inhospitable regions in the world for forty years.

Despite the challenges and regardless of the odds, humans are built to survive.

The Politics of Debt in America: From Debtor’s Prison to Debtor Nation

Those who view debt with a smiley face as the royal road to wealth accumulation and tend to be forgiven if their default is large enough almost invariably come from the top rungs of the economic hierarchy.  Then there are the rest of us, who get scolded for our impecunious ways, foreclosed upon and dispossessed, leaving behind scars that never fade away and wounds that disable our futures.

Think of this upstairs-downstairs class calculus as the politics of debt.  British economist John Maynard Keynes put it like this: “If I owe you a pound, I have a problem; but if I owe you a million, the problem is yours.”

After months of an impending “debtpocalypse,” the dreaded “debt ceiling,” and the “fiscal cliff,” Americans remain preoccupied with debt, public and private.  Austerity is what we’re promised for our sins. Millions are drowning, or have already drowned, in a sea of debt — mortgages gone badstudent loans that may never be paid off, spiraling credit card bills, car loans, payday loans, and a menagerie of new-fangled financial mechanisms cooked up by the country’s “financial engineers” to milk what’s left of the American standard of living.  

The world economy almost came apart in 2007-2008, and still may do so under the whale-sized carcass of debt left behind by financial plunderers who found in debt the leverage to get ever richer.  Most of them still live in their mansions and McMansions, while other debtors live outdoors, or in cars or shelters, or doubled-up with relatives and friends — or even in debtor’s prison. Believe it or not, a version of debtor’s prison, that relic of early American commercial barbarism, is back.

In 2013, you can’t actually be jailed for not paying your bills, but ingenious corporations, collection agencies, cops, courts, and lawyers have devised ways to insure that debt “delinquents” will end up in jail anyway.  With one-third of the states now allowing the jailing of debtors (without necessarily calling it that), it looks ever more like a trend in the making.

Will Americans tolerate this, or might there emerge a politics of resistance to debt, as has happened more than once in a past that shouldn’t be forgotten?

The World of Debtor’s Prisons

Imprisonment for debt was a commonplace in colonial America and the early republic, and wasn’t abolished in most states until the 1830s or 1840s, in some cases not until after the Civil War.  Today, we think of it as a peculiar and heartless way of punishing the poor — and it was.  But it was more than that.

Some of the richest, most esteemed members of society also ended up there, men like Robert Morris, who helped finance the American Revolution and ran the Treasury under the Articles of Confederation; John Pintard, a stock-broker, state legislator, and founder of the New York Historical Society; William Duer, graduate of Eton, powerful merchant and speculator, assistant secretary in the Treasury Department of the new federal government, and master of a Hudson River manse; a Pennsylvania Supreme Court judge; army generals; and other notables.

Whether rich or poor, you were there for a long stretch, even for life, unless you could figure out some way of discharging your debts.  That, however, is where the similarity between wealthy and impoverished debtors ended.

Whether in the famous Marshalsea in London where Charles Dickens had Little Dorritt’s father incarcerated (and where Dickens’s father had actually languished when the author was 12), or in the New Gaol in New York City, where men like Duer and Morris did their time, debtors prisons were segregated by class.  If your debts were large enough and your social connections weighty enough (the two tended to go together) you lived comfortably.  You were supplied with good food and well-appointed living quarters, as well as books and other pleasures, including on occasion manicurists and prostitutes.

Robert Morris entertained George Washington for dinner in his “cell.” Once released, he resumed his career as the new nation’s richest man.  Before John Pintard moved to New Gaol, he redecorated his cell, had it repainted and upholstered, and shipped in two mahogany writing desks.

Meanwhile, the mass of petty debtors housed in the same institution survived, if at all, amid squalor, filth, and disease.  They were often shackled, and lacked heat, clean water, adequate food, or often food of any kind.  (You usually had to have the money to buy your own food, clothing, and fuel.)  Debtors in these prisons frequently found themselves quite literally dying of debt.  And you could end up in such circumstances for trivial sums.  Of the 1,162 jailed debtors in New York City in 1787, 716 owed less than twenty shillings or one pound.  A third of Philadelphia’s inmates in 1817 were there for owing less than $5, and debtors in the city’s prisons outnumbered violent criminals by 5:1.  In Boston, 15% of them were women.  Shaming was more the point of punishment than anything else.

Scenes of public pathos were commonplace.  Inmates at the New Gaol, if housed on its upper floors, would lower shoes out the window on strings to collect alms for their release.  Other prisons installed “beggar gates” through which those jailed in cellar dungeons could stretch out their palms for the odd coins from passersby.

Poor and rich alike wanted out.  Pamphleteering against the institution of debtor’s prison began in the 1750s.  An Anglican minister in South Carolina denounced the jails, noting that “a person would be in a better situation in the French King’s Gallies, or the Prisons of Turkey or Barbary than in this dismal place.”  Discontent grew.  A mass escape from New Gaol of 40 prisoners armed with pistols and clubs was prompted by extreme hunger.

In the 1820s and 1830s, as artisans, journeymen, sailors, longshoremen, and other workers organized the early trade union movement as well as workingmen’s political parties, one principal demand was for the abolition of imprisonment for debt.  Inheritors of a radical political culture, their complaints echoed that Biblical tradition of Jubilee mentioned in Leviticus, which called for a cancellation of debts, the restoration of lost houses and land, and the freeing of slaves and bond servants every 50 years.

Falling into debt was a particularly ruinous affliction for those who aspired to modest independence as shopkeepers, handicraftsmen, or farmers.  As markets for their goods expanded but became ever less predictable, they found themselves taking out credit to survive and sometimes going into arrears, often followed by a stint in debtor’s prison that ended their dreams forever.

However much the poor organized and protested, it was the rich who got debt relief first.  Today, we assume that debts can be discharged through bankruptcy (although even now that option is either severely restricted or denied to certain classes of less favored debt delinquents like college students).  Although the newly adopted U.S. Constitution opened the door to a national bankruptcy law, Congress didn’t walk through it until 1800, even though many, including the well-off, had been lobbying for it.

Enough of the old moral faith that frowned on debt as sinful lingered.  The United States has always been an uncharitable place when it comes to debt, a curious attitude for a society largely settled by absconding debtors and indentured servants (a form of time-bound debt peonage).  Indeed, the state of Georgia was founded as a debtor’s haven at a time when England’s jails were overflowing with debtors.

When Congress finally passed the Bankruptcy Act, those in the privileged quarters at New Gaol threw a party.  Down below, however, life continued in its squalid way, since the new law only applied to people who had sizable debts.  If you owed too little, you stayed in jail.

Debt and the Birth of a Nation

Nowadays, the conservative media inundate us with warnings about debt from the Founding Fathers, and it’s true that some of them like Jefferson — himself an inveterate, often near-bankrupt debtor — did moralize on the subject.  However, Alexander Hamilton, an idol of the conservative movement, was the architect of the country’s first national debt, insisting that “if it is not excessive, [it] will be to us a national blessing.”

As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton’s goal was to transform the former 13 colonies, which today we would call an underdeveloped land, into a country that someday would rival Great Britain.  This, he knew, required liquid capital (resources not tied up in land or other less mobile forms of wealth), which could then be invested in sometimes highly speculative and risky enterprises.  Floating a national debt, he felt sure, would attract capital from well-positioned merchants at home and abroad, especially in England.

However, for most ordinary people living under the new government, debt aroused anger.  To begin with, there were all those veterans of the Revolutionary War and all the farmers who had supplied the revolutionary army with food and been paid in notoriously worthless “continentals” — the currency issued by the Continental Congress — or equally valueless state currencies.

As rumors of the formation of a new national government spread, speculators roamed the countryside buying up this paper money at a penny on the dollar, on the assumption that the debts they represented would be redeemed at face value.  In fact, that is just what Hamilton’s national debt would do, making these “sunshine patriots” quite rich, while leaving the yeomanry impoverished.

Outrage echoed across the country even before Hamilton’s plan got adopted.  Jefferson denounced the currency speculators as loathsome creatures and had this to say about debt in general: “The modern theory of the perpetuation of debt has drenched the earth with blood and crushed its inhabitants under burdens ever accumulating.”  He and others denounced the speculators as squadrons of counter-revolutionary “moneycrats” who would use their power and wealth to undo the democratic accomplishments of the revolution.

In contrast, Hamilton saw them as a disinterested monied elite upon whom the country’s economic well-being depended, while dismissing the criticisms of the Jeffersonians as the ravings of Jacobin levelers.  Soon enough, political warfare over the debt turned founding fathers into fratricidal brothers.

Hamilton’s plan worked — sometimes too well.  Wealthy speculators in land like Robert Morris, or in the building of docks, wharves, and other projects tied to trade, or in the national debt itself — something William Duer and grandees like him specialized in — seized the moment.  Often enough, however, they over-reached and found themselves, like the yeomen farmers and soldiers, in default to their creditors.

Duer’s attempts to corner the market in the bonds issued by the new federal government and in the stock of the country’s first National Bank represented one of the earliest instances of insider trading.  They also proved a lurid example of how speculation could go disastrously wrong.  When the scheme collapsed, it caused the country’s first Wall Street panic and a local depression that spread through New England, ruining “shopkeepers, widows, orphans, butchers… gardeners, market women, and even the noted Bawd Mrs. McCarty.”

A mob chased Duer through the streets of New York and might have hanged or disemboweled him had he not been rescued by the city sheriff, who sent him to the safety of debtor’s prison.  John Pintard, part of the same scheme, fled to Newark, New Jersey, before being caught and jailed as well.

Sending the Duers and Pintards of the new republic off to debtors’ prison was not, however, quite what Hamilton had in mind.  And leaving them rotting there was hardly going to foster the “enterprising spirit” that would, in the treasury secretary’s estimation, turn the country into the Great Britain of the next century.  Bankruptcy, on the other hand, ensured that the overextended could start again and keep the machinery of commercial transactions lubricated.  Hence, the Bankruptcy Act of 1800.

If, however, you were not a major player, debt functioned differently. Shouldered by the hoi polloi, it functioned as a mechanism for funneling wealth into the mercantile-financial hothouses where American capitalism was being incubated.

No wonder debt excited such violent political emotions.  Even before the Constitution was adopted, farmers in western Massachusetts, indebted to Boston bankers and merchants and in danger of losing their ancestral homes in the economic hard times of the 1780s, rose in armed rebellion.  In those years, the number of lawsuits for unpaid debt doubled and tripled, farms were seized, and their owners sent off to jail.  Incensed, farmers led by a former revolutionary soldier, Daniel Shays, closed local courts by force and liberated debtors from prisons.  Similar but smaller uprisings erupted in Maine, Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania, while in New Hampshire and Vermont irate farmers surrounded government offices.

Shays’ Rebellion of 1786 alarmed the country’s elites.  They depicted the unruly yeomen as “brutes” and their houses as “sties.”  They were frightened as well by state governments like Rhode Island’s that were more open to popular influence, declared debt moratoria, and issued paper currencies to help farmers and others pay off their debts.  These developments signaled the need for a stronger central government fully capable of suppressing future debtor insurgencies.

Federal authority established at the Constitutional Convention allowed for that, but the unrest continued.  Shays’ Rebellion was but part one of a trilogy of uprisings that continued into the 1790s.  The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 was the most serious.  An excise tax (“whiskey tax”) meant to generate revenue to back up the national debt threatened the livelihoods of farmers in western Pennsylvania who used whiskey as a “currency” in a barter economy.  President Washington sent in troops, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, with Hamilton at their head to put down the rebels.

Debt Servitude and Primitive Accumulation

Debt would continue to play a vital role in national and local political affairs throughout the nineteenth century, functioning as a form of capital accumulation in the financial sector, and often sinking pre-capitalist forms of life in the process.

Before and during the time that capitalists were fully assuming the prerogatives of running the production process in field and factory, finance was building up its own resources from the outside.  Meanwhile, the mechanisms of public and private debt made the lives of farmers, craftsmen, shopkeepers, and others increasingly insupportable.

This parasitic economic metabolism helped account for the riotous nature of Gilded Age politics. Much of the high drama of late nineteenth-century political life circled around “greenbacks,” “free silver,” and “the gold standard.”  These issues may strike us as arcane today, but they were incendiary then, threatening what some called a “second Civil War.”  In one way or another, they were centrally about debt, especially a system of indebtedness that was driving the independent farmer to extinction.

All the highways of global capitalism found their way into the trackless vastness of rural America.  Farmers there were not in dire straits because of their backwoods isolation.  On the contrary, it was because they turned out to be living at Ground Zero, where the explosive energies of financial and commercial modernity detonated.  A toxic combination of railroads, grain-elevator operators, farm-machinery manufacturers, commodity-exchange speculators, local merchants, and above all the banking establishment had the farmer at their mercy.  His helplessness was only aggravated when the nineteenth-century version of globalization left his crops in desperate competition with those from the steppes of Canada and Russia, as well as the outbacks of Australia and South America.

To survive this mercantile onslaught, farmers hooked themselves up to long lines of credit that stretched back to the financial centers of the East.  These lifelines allowed them to buy the seed, fertilizer, and machines needed to farm, pay the storage and freight charges that went with selling their crops, and keep house and home together while the plants ripened and the hogs fattened.  When market day finally arrived, the farmer found out just what all his backbreaking work was really worth.  If the news was bad, then those credit lines were shut off and he found himself dispossessed.

The family farm and the network of small town life that went with it were being washed into the rivers of capital heading for metropolitan America.  On the “sod house” frontier, poverty was a “badge of honor which decorated all.”  In hisDevil’s Dictionary, the acid-tongued humorist Ambrose Bierce defined the dilemma this way: “Debt. n. An ingenious substitute for the chain and whip of the slave-driver.”

Across the Great Plains and the cotton South, discontented farmers spread the blame for their predicament far and wide.  Anger, however, tended to pool around the strangulating system of currency and credit run out of the banking centers of the northeast. Beginning in the 1870s with the emergence of the Greenback Party and Greenback-Labor Party and culminating in the 1890s with the People’s or Populist Party, independent farmers, tenant farmers, sharecroppers, small businessmen, and skilled workers directed ever more intense hostility at “the money power.”

That “power” might appear locally in the homeliest of disguises.  At coal mines and other industrial sites, among “coolies” working to build the railroads or imported immigrant gang laborers and convicts leased to private concerns, workers were typically compelled to buy what they needed in company scrip at company stores at prices that left them perpetually in debt.  Proletarians were so precariously positioned that going into debt — whether to pawnshops or employers, landlords or loan sharks — was unavoidable.  Often they were paid in kind: wood chips, thread, hemp, scraps of canvas, cordage: nothing, that is, that was of any use in paying off accumulated debts.  In effect, they were, as they called themselves, “debt slaves.”

In the South, hard-pressed growers found themselves embroiled in a crop-lien system, dependent on the local “furnishing agent” to supply everything needed, from seed to clothing to machinery, to get through the growing season.  In such situations, no money changed hands, just a note scribbled in the merchant’s ledger, with payment due at “settling up” time.  This granted the lender a lien, or title, to the crop, a lien that never went away.

In this fashion, the South became “a great pawn shop,” with farmers perpetually in debt at interest rates exceeding 100% per year.  In Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, 90% of farmers lived on credit.  The first lien you signed was essentially a life sentence.  Either that or you became a tenant farmer, or you simply left your land, something so commonplace that everyone knew what the letters “G.T.T.” on an abandoned farmhouse meant: “Gone to Texas.”  (One hundred thousand people a year were doing that in the 1870s.)

The merchant’s exaction was so steep that African-Americans and immigrants in particular were regularly reduced to peonage — forced, that is, to work to pay off their debt, an illegal but not uncommon practice.  And that neighborhood furnishing agent was often tied to the banks up north for his own lines of credit.  In this way, the sucking sound of money leaving for the great metropolises reverberated from region to region.

Facing dispossession, farmers formed alliances to set up cooperatives to extend credit to one another and market crops themselves.  As one Populist editorialist remarked, this was the way “mortgage-burdened farmers can assert their freedom from the tyranny of organized capital.”  But when they found that these groupings couldn’t survive the competitive pressure of the banking establishment, politics beckoned.

From one presidential election to the next and in state contests throughout the South and West, irate grain and cotton growers demanded that the government expand the paper currency supply, those “greenbacks,” also known as “the people’s money,” or that it monetize silver, again to enlarge the money supply, or that it set up public institutions to finance farmers during the growing season.  With a passion hard for us to imagine, they railed against the “gold standard” which, in Democratic Party presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan’s famous cry, should no longer be allowed to “crucify mankind on a cross of gold.”

Should that cross of gold stay fixed in place, one Alabama physician prophesied, it would “reduce the American yeomanry to menials and paupers, to be driven by monopolies like cattle and swine.”  As Election Day approached, populist editors and speakers warned of an approaching war with “the money power,” and they meant it.  “The fight will come and let it come!”

The idea was to force the government to deliberately inflate the currency and so raise farm prices.  And the reason for doing that?  To get out from under the sea of debt in which they were submerged.  It was a cry from the heart and it echoed and re-echoed across the heartland, coming nearer to upsetting the established order than any American political upheaval before or since.

The passion of those populist farmers and laborers was matched by that of their enemies, men at the top of the economy and government for whom debt had long been a road to riches rather than destitution.  They dismissed their foes as “cranks” and “calamity howlers.”  And in the election of 1896, they won.  Bryan went down to defeat, gold continued its pitiless process of crucifixion, and a whole human ecology was set on a path to extinction.

The Return of Debt Servitude

When populism died, debt — as a spark for national political confrontation — died, too.  The great reform eras that followed — Progessivism, the New Deal, and the Great Society — were preoccupied with inequality, economic collapse, exploitation in the workplace, and the outsized nature of corporate power in a consolidated industrial capitalist system.

Rumblings about debt servitude could certainly still be heard.  Foreclosed farmers during the Great Depression mobilized, held “penny auctions” to restore farms to families, hanged judges in effigy, and forced Prudential Insurance Company, the largest land creditor in Iowa, to suspend foreclosures on 37,000 farms (which persuaded Metropolitan Life Insurance Company to do likewise).  A Kansas City realtor was shot in the act of foreclosing on a family farm, a country sheriff kidnapped while trying to evict a farm widow and dumped 10 miles out of town, and so on.

Urban renters and homeowners facing eviction formed neighborhood groups to stop the local sheriff or police from throwing families out of their houses or apartments. Furniture tossed into the street in eviction proceedings would be restored by neighbors, who would also turn the gas and electricity back on.  New Deal farm and housing finance legislation bailed out banks and homeowners alike.  Right-wing populists like the Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin carried on the war against the gold standard in tirades tinged with anti-Semitism.  Signs like one in Nebraska — “The Jew System of Banking” (illustrated with a giant rattlesnake) — showed up too often.

But the age of primitive accumulation in which debt and the financial sector had played such a strategic role was drawing to a close.

Today, we have entered a new phase.  What might be called capitalist underdevelopment and once again debt has emerged as both the central mode of capital accumulation and a principal mechanism of servitude.  Warren Buffett (of all people) has predicted that, in the coming decades, the United States is more likely to turn into a “sharecropper society” than an “ownership society.”

In our time, the financial sector has enriched itself by devouring the productive wherewithal of industrial America through debt, starving the public sector of resources, and saddling ordinary working people with every conceivable form of consumer debt.

Household debt, which in 1952 was at 36% of total personal income, had by 2006 hit 127%.  Even financing poverty became a lucrative enterprise.  Taking advantage of the low credit ratings of poor people and their need for cash to pay monthly bills or simply feed themselves, some check-cashing outlets, payday lenders, tax preparers, and others levy interest of 200% to 300% and more.  As recently as the 1970s, a good part of this would have been considered illegal under usury laws that no longer exist.  And these poverty creditors are often tied to the largest financiers, including Citibank, Bank of America, and American Express.

Credit has come to function as a “plastic safety net” in a world of job insecurity, declining state support, and slow-motion economic growth, especially among the elderly, young adults, and low-income families.  More than half the pre-tax income of these three groups goes to servicing debt.  Nowadays, however, the “company store” is headquartered on Wall Street.

Debt is driving this system of auto-cannibalism which, by every measure of social wellbeing, is relentlessly turning a developed country into an underdeveloped one.

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are back.  Is a political resistance to debt servitude once again imaginable?

Steve Fraser is a historian, writer, and editor-at-large for New Labor Forum, co-founder of the American Empire Project, and TomDispatch regular. He is, most recently, the author of Wall Street: America’s Dream Palace. He teaches at Columbia University. This essay will appear in the next issue of Jacobinmagazine.

The Politics of Debt in America: From Debtor’s Prison to Debtor Nation

[This essay will appear in the next issue of Jacobin.  It is posted at TomDispatch.com with the kind permission of that magazine, and re-posted at Common Dreams with subsequent permission.]

Shakespeare’s Polonius offered this classic advice to his son: “neither a borrower nor a lender be.”  Many of our nation’s Founding Fathers emphatically saw it otherwise.  They often lived by the maxim: always a borrower, never a lender be.  As tobacco and rice planters, slave traders, and merchants, as well as land and currency speculators, they depended upon long lines of credit to finance their livelihoods and splendid ways of life.  So, too, in those days, did shopkeepers, tradesmen, artisans, and farmers, as well as casual laborers and sailors.  Without debt, the seedlings of a commercial economy could never have grown to maturity.

Ben Franklin, however, was wary on the subject. “Rather go to bed supperless than rise in debt” was his warning, and even now his cautionary words carry great moral weight.  We worry about debt, yet we can’t live without it.

Debt remains, as it long has been, the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of capitalism.  For a small minority, it’s a blessing; for others a curse.  For some the moral burden of carrying debt is a heavy one, and no one lets them forget it.  For privileged others, debt bears no moral baggage at all, presents itself as an opportunity to prosper, and if things go wrong can be dumped without a qualm.

Those who view debt with a smiley face as the royal road to wealth accumulation and tend to be forgiven if their default is large enough almost invariably come from the top rungs of the economic hierarchy.  Then there are the rest of us, who get scolded for our impecunious ways, foreclosed upon and dispossessed, leaving behind scars that never fade away and wounds that disable our futures. 

Think of this upstairs-downstairs class calculus as the politics of debt.  British economist John Maynard Keynes put it like this: “If I owe you a pound, I have a problem; but if I owe you a million, the problem is yours.”

After months of an impending “debtpocalypse,” the dreaded “debt ceiling,” and the “fiscal cliff,” Americans remain preoccupied with debt, public and private.  Austerity is what we’re promised for our sins. Millions are drowning, or have already drowned, in a sea of debt -- mortgages gone bad, student loans that may never be paid off, spiraling credit card bills, car loans, payday loans, and a menagerie of new-fangled financial mechanisms cooked up by the country’s “financial engineers” to milk what’s left of the American standard of living. 

The world economy almost came apart in 2007-2008, and still may do so under the whale-sized carcass of debt left behind by financial plunderers who found in debt the leverage to get ever richer.  Most of them still live in their mansions and McMansions, while other debtors live outdoors, or in cars or shelters, or doubled-up with relatives and friends -- or even in debtor’s prison. Believe it or not, a version of debtor’s prison, that relic of early American commercial barbarism, is back. 

In 2013, you can’t actually be jailed for not paying your bills, but ingenious corporations, collection agencies, cops, courts, and lawyers have devised ways to insure that debt “delinquents” will end up in jail anyway.  With one-third of the states now allowing the jailing of debtors (without necessarily calling it that), it looks ever more like a trend in the making.

Will Americans tolerate this, or might there emerge a politics of resistance to debt, as has happened more than once in a past that shouldn’t be forgotten?  

The World of Debtor’s Prisons

Imprisonment for debt was a commonplace in colonial America and the early republic, and wasn’t abolished in most states until the 1830s or 1840s, in some cases not until after the Civil War.  Today, we think of it as a peculiar and heartless way of punishing the poor -- and it was.  But it was more than that.

Some of the richest, most esteemed members of society also ended up there, men like Robert Morris, who helped finance the American Revolution and ran the Treasury under the Articles of Confederation; John Pintard, a stock-broker, state legislator, and founder of the New York Historical Society; William Duer, graduate of Eton, powerful merchant and speculator, assistant secretary in the Treasury Department of the new federal government, and master of a Hudson River manse; a Pennsylvania Supreme Court judge; army generals; and other notables.

Whether rich or poor, you were there for a long stretch, even for life, unless you could figure out some way of discharging your debts.  That, however, is where the similarity between wealthy and impoverished debtors ended.

Whether in the famous Marshalsea in London where Charles Dickens had Little Dorritt’s father incarcerated (and where Dickens’s father had actually languished when the author was 12), or in the New Gaol in New York City, where men like Duer and Morris did their time, debtors prisons were segregated by class.  If your debts were large enough and your social connections weighty enough (the two tended to go together) you lived comfortably.  You were supplied with good food and well-appointed living quarters, as well as books and other pleasures, including on occasion manicurists and prostitutes. 

Robert Morris entertained George Washington for dinner in his “cell.” Once released, he resumed his career as the new nation’s richest man.  Before John Pintard moved to New Gaol, he redecorated his cell, had it repainted and upholstered, and shipped in two mahogany writing desks.

Meanwhile, the mass of petty debtors housed in the same institution survived, if at all, amid squalor, filth, and disease.  They were often shackled, and lacked heat, clean water, adequate food, or often food of any kind.  (You usually had to have the money to buy your own food, clothing, and fuel.)  Debtors in these prisons frequently found themselves quite literally dying of debt.  And you could end up in such circumstances for trivial sums.  Of the 1,162 jailed debtors in New York City in 1787, 716 owed less than twenty shillings or one pound.  A third of Philadelphia’s inmates in 1817 were there for owing less than $5, and debtors in the city’s prisons outnumbered violent criminals by 5:1.  In Boston, 15% of them were women.  Shaming was more the point of punishment than anything else.

Scenes of public pathos were commonplace.  Inmates at the New Gaol, if housed on its upper floors, would lower shoes out the window on strings to collect alms for their release.  Other prisons installed “beggar gates” through which those jailed in cellar dungeons could stretch out their palms for the odd coins from passersby.

Poor and rich alike wanted out.  Pamphleteering against the institution of debtor’s prison began in the 1750s.  An Anglican minister in South Carolina denounced the jails, noting that “a person would be in a better situation in the French King’s Gallies, or the Prisons of Turkey or Barbary than in this dismal place.”  Discontent grew.  A mass escape from New Gaol of 40 prisoners armed with pistols and clubs was prompted by extreme hunger. 

In the 1820s and 1830s, as artisans, journeymen, sailors, longshoremen, and other workers organized the early trade union movement as well as workingmen’s political parties, one principal demand was for the abolition of imprisonment for debt.  Inheritors of a radical political culture, their complaints echoed that Biblical tradition of Jubilee mentioned in Leviticus, which called for a cancellation of debts, the restoration of lost houses and land, and the freeing of slaves and bond servants every 50 years.

Falling into debt was a particularly ruinous affliction for those who aspired to modest independence as shopkeepers, handicraftsmen, or farmers.  As markets for their goods expanded but became ever less predictable, they found themselves taking out credit to survive and sometimes going into arrears, often followed by a stint in debtor’s prison that ended their dreams forever. 

However much the poor organized and protested, it was the rich who got debt relief first.  Today, we assume that debts can be discharged through bankruptcy (although even now that option is either severely restricted or denied to certain classes of less favored debt delinquents like college students).  Although the newly adopted U.S. Constitution opened the door to a national bankruptcy law, Congress didn’t walk through it until 1800, even though many, including the well-off, had been lobbying for it.

Enough of the old moral faith that frowned on debt as sinful lingered.  The United States has always been an uncharitable place when it comes to debt, a curious attitude for a society largely settled by absconding debtors and indentured servants (a form of time-bound debt peonage).  Indeed, the state of Georgia was founded as a debtor’s haven at a time when England’s jails were overflowing with debtors.

When Congress finally passed the Bankruptcy Act, those in the privileged quarters at New Gaol threw a party.  Down below, however, life continued in its squalid way, since the new law only applied to people who had sizable debts.  If you owed too little, you stayed in jail. 

Debt and the Birth of a Nation

Nowadays, the conservative media inundate us with warnings about debt from the Founding Fathers, and it’s true that some of them like Jefferson -- himself an inveterate, often near-bankrupt debtor -- did moralize on the subject.  However, Alexander Hamilton, an idol of the conservative movement, was the architect of the country’s first national debt, insisting that “if it is not excessive, [it] will be to us a national blessing.”

As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton’s goal was to transform the former 13 colonies, which today we would call an underdeveloped land, into a country that someday would rival Great Britain.  This, he knew, required liquid capital (resources not tied up in land or other less mobile forms of wealth), which could then be invested in sometimes highly speculative and risky enterprises.  Floating a national debt, he felt sure, would attract capital from well-positioned merchants at home and abroad, especially in England.

However, for most ordinary people living under the new government, debt aroused anger.  To begin with, there were all those veterans of the Revolutionary War and all the farmers who had supplied the revolutionary army with food and been paid in notoriously worthless “continentals” -- the currency issued by the Continental Congress -- or equally valueless state currencies.

As rumors of the formation of a new national government spread, speculators roamed the countryside buying up this paper money at a penny on the dollar, on the assumption that the debts they represented would be redeemed at face value.  In fact, that is just what Hamilton’s national debt would do, making these “sunshine patriots” quite rich, while leaving the yeomanry impoverished.

Outrage echoed across the country even before Hamilton’s plan got adopted.  Jefferson denounced the currency speculators as loathsome creatures and had this to say about debt in general: “The modern theory of the perpetuation of debt has drenched the earth with blood and crushed its inhabitants under burdens ever accumulating.”  He and others denounced the speculators as squadrons of counter-revolutionary “moneycrats” who would use their power and wealth to undo the democratic accomplishments of the revolution.

In contrast, Hamilton saw them as a disinterested monied elite upon whom the country’s economic well-being depended, while dismissing the criticisms of the Jeffersonians as the ravings of Jacobin levelers.  Soon enough, political warfare over the debt turned founding fathers into fratricidal brothers.  

Hamilton’s plan worked -- sometimes too well.  Wealthy speculators in land like Robert Morris, or in the building of docks, wharves, and other projects tied to trade, or in the national debt itself -- something William Duer and grandees like him specialized in -- seized the moment.  Often enough, however, they over-reached and found themselves, like the yeomen farmers and soldiers, in default to their creditors. 

Duer’s attempts to corner the market in the bonds issued by the new federal government and in the stock of the country’s first National Bank represented one of the earliest instances of insider trading.  They also proved a lurid example of how speculation could go disastrously wrong.  When the scheme collapsed, it caused the country’s first Wall Street panic and a local depression that spread through New England, ruining “shopkeepers, widows, orphans, butchers... gardeners, market women, and even the noted Bawd Mrs. McCarty.”   

A mob chased Duer through the streets of New York and might have hanged or disemboweled him had he not been rescued by the city sheriff, who sent him to the safety of debtor’s prison.  John Pintard, part of the same scheme, fled to Newark, New Jersey, before being caught and jailed as well.

Sending the Duers and Pintards of the new republic off to debtors’ prison was not, however, quite what Hamilton had in mind.  And leaving them rotting there was hardly going to foster the “enterprising spirit” that would, in the treasury secretary’s estimation, turn the country into the Great Britain of the next century.  Bankruptcy, on the other hand, ensured that the overextended could start again and keep the machinery of commercial transactions lubricated.  Hence, the Bankruptcy Act of 1800.

If, however, you were not a major player, debt functioned differently. Shouldered by the hoi polloi, it functioned as a mechanism for funneling wealth into the mercantile-financial hothouses where American capitalism was being incubated.

No wonder debt excited such violent political emotions.  Even before the Constitution was adopted, farmers in western Massachusetts, indebted to Boston bankers and merchants and in danger of losing their ancestral homes in the economic hard times of the 1780s, rose in armed rebellion.  In those years, the number of lawsuits for unpaid debt doubled and tripled, farms were seized, and their owners sent off to jail.  Incensed, farmers led by a former revolutionary soldier, Daniel Shays, closed local courts by force and liberated debtors from prisons.  Similar but smaller uprisings erupted in Maine, Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania, while in New Hampshire and Vermont irate farmers surrounded government offices. 

Shays' Rebellion of 1786 alarmed the country’s elites.  They depicted the unruly yeomen as “brutes” and their houses as “sties.”  They were frightened as well by state governments like Rhode Island’s that were more open to popular influence, declared debt moratoria, and issued paper currencies to help farmers and others pay off their debts.  These developments signaled the need for a stronger central government fully capable of suppressing future debtor insurgencies.

Federal authority established at the Constitutional Convention allowed for that, but the unrest continued.  Shays' Rebellion was but part one of a trilogy of uprisings that continued into the 1790s.  The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 was the most serious.  An excise tax (“whiskey tax”) meant to generate revenue to back up the national debt threatened the livelihoods of farmers in western Pennsylvania who used whiskey as a “currency” in a barter economy.  President Washington sent in troops, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, with Hamilton at their head to put down the rebels. 

Debt Servitude and Primitive Accumulation

Debt would continue to play a vital role in national and local political affairs throughout the nineteenth century, functioning as a form of capital accumulation in the financial sector, and often sinking pre-capitalist forms of life in the process. 

Before and during the time that capitalists were fully assuming the prerogatives of running the production process in field and factory, finance was building up its own resources from the outside.  Meanwhile, the mechanisms of public and private debt made the lives of farmers, craftsmen, shopkeepers, and others increasingly insupportable.

This parasitic economic metabolism helped account for the riotous nature of Gilded Age politics. Much of the high drama of late nineteenth-century political life circled around “greenbacks,” “free silver,” and "the gold standard."  These issues may strike us as arcane today, but they were incendiary then, threatening what some called a “second Civil War.”  In one way or another, they were centrally about debt, especially a system of indebtedness that was driving the independent farmer to extinction.

All the highways of global capitalism found their way into the trackless vastness of rural America.  Farmers there were not in dire straits because of their backwoods isolation.  On the contrary, it was because they turned out to be living at Ground Zero, where the explosive energies of financial and commercial modernity detonated.  A toxic combination of railroads, grain-elevator operators, farm-machinery manufacturers, commodity-exchange speculators, local merchants, and above all the banking establishment had the farmer at their mercy.  His helplessness was only aggravated when the nineteenth-century version of globalization left his crops in desperate competition with those from the steppes of Canada and Russia, as well as the outbacks of Australia and South America.

To survive this mercantile onslaught, farmers hooked themselves up to long lines of credit that stretched back to the financial centers of the East.  These lifelines allowed them to buy the seed, fertilizer, and machines needed to farm, pay the storage and freight charges that went with selling their crops, and keep house and home together while the plants ripened and the hogs fattened.  When market day finally arrived, the farmer found out just what all his backbreaking work was really worth.  If the news was bad, then those credit lines were shut off and he found himself dispossessed.

The family farm and the network of small town life that went with it were being washed into the rivers of capital heading for metropolitan America.  On the “sod house” frontier, poverty was a “badge of honor which decorated all.”  In his Devil’s Dictionary, the acid-tongued humorist Ambrose Bierce defined the dilemma this way: “Debt. n. An ingenious substitute for the chain and whip of the slave-driver.”

Across the Great Plains and the cotton South, discontented farmers spread the blame for their predicament far and wide.  Anger, however, tended to pool around the strangulating system of currency and credit run out of the banking centers of the northeast. Beginning in the 1870s with the emergence of the Greenback Party and Greenback-Labor Party and culminating in the 1890s with the People’s or Populist Party, independent farmers, tenant farmers, sharecroppers, small businessmen, and skilled workers directed ever more intense hostility at “the money power.”

That “power” might appear locally in the homeliest of disguises.  At coal mines and other industrial sites, among “coolies” working to build the railroads or imported immigrant gang laborers and convicts leased to private concerns, workers were typically compelled to buy what they needed in company scrip at company stores at prices that left them perpetually in debt.  Proletarians were so precariously positioned that going into debt -- whether to pawnshops or employers, landlords or loan sharks -- was unavoidable.  Often they were paid in kind: wood chips, thread, hemp, scraps of canvas, cordage: nothing, that is, that was of any use in paying off accumulated debts.  In effect, they were, as they called themselves, “debt slaves.” 

In the South, hard-pressed growers found themselves embroiled in a crop-lien system, dependent on the local “furnishing agent” to supply everything needed, from seed to clothing to machinery, to get through the growing season.  In such situations, no money changed hands, just a note scribbled in the merchant’s ledger, with payment due at “settling up” time.  This granted the lender a lien, or title, to the crop, a lien that never went away.

In this fashion, the South became “a great pawn shop,” with farmers perpetually in debt at interest rates exceeding 100% per year.  In Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, 90% of farmers lived on credit.  The first lien you signed was essentially a life sentence.  Either that or you became a tenant farmer, or you simply left your land, something so commonplace that everyone knew what the letters “G.T.T.” on an abandoned farmhouse meant: “Gone to Texas.”  (One hundred thousand people a year were doing that in the 1870s.) 

The merchant’s exaction was so steep that African-Americans and immigrants in particular were regularly reduced to peonage -- forced, that is, to work to pay off their debt, an illegal but not uncommon practice.  And that neighborhood furnishing agent was often tied to the banks up north for his own lines of credit.  In this way, the sucking sound of money leaving for the great metropolises reverberated from region to region.

Facing dispossession, farmers formed alliances to set up cooperatives to extend credit to one another and market crops themselves.  As one Populist editorialist remarked, this was the way “mortgage-burdened farmers can assert their freedom from the tyranny of organized capital.”  But when they found that these groupings couldn’t survive the competitive pressure of the banking establishment, politics beckoned.

From one presidential election to the next and in state contests throughout the South and West, irate grain and cotton growers demanded that the government expand the paper currency supply, those “greenbacks,” also known as “the people’s money,” or that it monetize silver, again to enlarge the money supply, or that it set up public institutions to finance farmers during the growing season.  With a passion hard for us to imagine, they railed against the “gold standard” which, in Democratic Party presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan’s famous cry, should no longer be allowed to “crucify mankind on a cross of gold.”

Should that cross of gold stay fixed in place, one Alabama physician prophesied, it would “reduce the American yeomanry to menials and paupers, to be driven by monopolies like cattle and swine.”  As Election Day approached, populist editors and speakers warned of an approaching war with “the money power,” and they meant it.  “The fight will come and let it come!”

The idea was to force the government to deliberately inflate the currency and so raise farm prices.  And the reason for doing that?  To get out from under the sea of debt in which they were submerged.  It was a cry from the heart and it echoed and re-echoed across the heartland, coming nearer to upsetting the established order than any American political upheaval before or since. 

The passion of those populist farmers and laborers was matched by that of their enemies, men at the top of the economy and government for whom debt had long been a road to riches rather than destitution.  They dismissed their foes as “cranks” and “calamity howlers.”  And in the election of 1896, they won.  Bryan went down to defeat, gold continued its pitiless process of crucifixion, and a whole human ecology was set on a path to extinction.

The Return of Debt Servitude

When populism died, debt -- as a spark for national political confrontation -- died, too.  The great reform eras that followed -- Progessivism, the New Deal, and the Great Society -- were preoccupied with inequality, economic collapse, exploitation in the workplace, and the outsized nature of corporate power in a consolidated industrial capitalist system.

Rumblings about debt servitude could certainly still be heard.  Foreclosed farmers during the Great Depression mobilized, held “penny auctions” to restore farms to families, hanged judges in effigy, and forced Prudential Insurance Company, the largest land creditor in Iowa, to suspend foreclosures on 37,000 farms (which persuaded Metropolitan Life Insurance Company to do likewise).  A Kansas City realtor was shot in the act of foreclosing on a family farm, a country sheriff kidnapped while trying to evict a farm widow and dumped 10 miles out of town, and so on.

Urban renters and homeowners facing eviction formed neighborhood groups to stop the local sheriff or police from throwing families out of their houses or apartments. Furniture tossed into the street in eviction proceedings would be restored by neighbors, who would also turn the gas and electricity back on.  New Deal farm and housing finance legislation bailed out banks and homeowners alike.  Right-wing populists like the Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin carried on the war against the gold standard in tirades tinged with anti-Semitism.  Signs like one in Nebraska -- “The Jew System of Banking” (illustrated with a giant rattlesnake) -- showed up too often.

But the age of primitive accumulation in which debt and the financial sector had played such a strategic role was drawing to a close. 

Today, we have entered a new phase.  What might be called capitalist underdevelopment and once again debt has emerged as both the central mode of capital accumulation and a principal mechanism of servitude.  Warren Buffett (of all people) has predicted that, in the coming decades, the United States is more likely to turn into a “sharecropper society” than an “ownership society.”

In our time, the financial sector has enriched itself by devouring the productive wherewithal of industrial America through debt, starving the public sector of resources, and saddling ordinary working people with every conceivable form of consumer debt.

Household debt, which in 1952 was at 36% of total personal income, had by 2006 hit 127%.  Even financing poverty became a lucrative enterprise.  Taking advantage of the low credit ratings of poor people and their need for cash to pay monthly bills or simply feed themselves, some check-cashing outlets, payday lenders, tax preparers, and others levy interest of 200% to 300% and more.  As recently as the 1970s, a good part of this would have been considered illegal under usury laws that no longer exist.  And these poverty creditors are often tied to the largest financiers, including Citibank, Bank of America, and American Express.

Credit has come to function as a “plastic safety net” in a world of job insecurity, declining state support, and slow-motion economic growth, especially among the elderly, young adults, and low-income families.  More than half the pre-tax income of these three groups goes to servicing debt.  Nowadays, however, the “company store” is headquartered on Wall Street.

Debt is driving this system of auto-cannibalism which, by every measure of social wellbeing, is relentlessly turning a developed country into an underdeveloped one.  

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are back.  Is a political resistance to debt servitude once again imaginable?

© 2013 Steve Fraser

Steve Fraser

Steve Fraser is Editor-at-Large of New Labor Forum and co-founder of the American Empire Project (Metropolitan Books). He is, most recently, the author of Wall Street: America’s Dream Palace. He teaches history at Columbia University.

The Politics of Debt in America From Debtor’s Prison to Debtor Nation

Shakespeare’s Polonius offered this classic advice to his son: “neither a borrower nor a lender be.”  Many of our nation’s Founding Fathers emphatically saw it otherwise.  They often lived by the maxim: always a borrower, never a lender be.  As tobacco and rice planters, slave traders, and merchants, as well as land and currency speculators, they depended upon long lines of credit to finance their livelihoods and splendid ways of life.  So, too, in those days, did shopkeepers, tradesmen, artisans, and farmers, as well as casual laborers and sailors.  Without debt, the seedlings of a commercial economy could never have grown to maturity.

Ben Franklin, however, was wary on the subject. “Rather go to bed supperless than rise in debt” was his warning, and even now his cautionary words carry great moral weight.  We worry about debt, yet we can’t live without it.

Debt remains, as it long has been, the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of capitalism.  For a small minority, it’s a blessing; for others a curse.  For some the moral burden of carrying debt is a heavy one, and no one lets them forget it.  For privileged others, debt bears no moral baggage at all, presents itself as an opportunity to prosper, and if things go wrong can be dumped without a qualm.

Those who view debt with a smiley face as the royal road to wealth accumulation and tend to be forgiven if their default is large enough almost invariably come from the top rungs of the economic hierarchy.  Then there are the rest of us, who get scolded for our impecunious ways, foreclosed upon and dispossessed, leaving behind scars that never fade away and wounds that disable our futures. 

Think of this upstairs-downstairs class calculus as the politics of debt.  British economist John Maynard Keynes put it like this: “If I owe you a pound, I have a problem; but if I owe you a million, the problem is yours.”

After months of an impending “debtpocalypse,” the dreaded “debt ceiling,” and the “fiscal cliff,” Americans remain preoccupied with debt, public and private.  Austerity is what we’re promised for our sins. Millions are drowning, or have already drowned, in a sea of debt -- mortgages gone bad, student loans that may never be paid off, spiraling credit card bills, car loans, payday loans, and a menagerie of new-fangled financial mechanisms cooked up by the country’s “financial engineers” to milk what’s left of the American standard of living.   

The world economy almost came apart in 2007-2008, and still may do so under the whale-sized carcass of debt left behind by financial plunderers who found in debt the leverage to get ever richer.  Most of them still live in their mansions and McMansions, while other debtors live outdoors, or in cars or shelters, or doubled-up with relatives and friends -- or even in debtor’s prison. Believe it or not, a version of debtor’s prison, that relic of early American commercial barbarism, is back. 

In 2013, you can’t actually be jailed for not paying your bills, but ingenious corporations, collection agencies, cops, courts, and lawyers have devised ways to insure that debt “delinquents” will end up in jail anyway.  With one-third of the states now allowing the jailing of debtors (without necessarily calling it that), it looks ever more like a trend in the making.

Will Americans tolerate this, or might there emerge a politics of resistance to debt, as has happened more than once in a past that shouldn’t be forgotten?  

The World of Debtor’s Prisons

Imprisonment for debt was a commonplace in colonial America and the early republic, and wasn’t abolished in most states until the 1830s or 1840s, in some cases not until after the Civil War.  Today, we think of it as a peculiar and heartless way of punishing the poor -- and it was.  But it was more than that.

Some of the richest, most esteemed members of society also ended up there, men like Robert Morris, who helped finance the American Revolution and ran the Treasury under the Articles of Confederation; John Pintard, a stock-broker, state legislator, and founder of the New York Historical Society; William Duer, graduate of Eton, powerful merchant and speculator, assistant secretary in the Treasury Department of the new federal government, and master of a Hudson River manse; a Pennsylvania Supreme Court judge; army generals; and other notables.

Whether rich or poor, you were there for a long stretch, even for life, unless you could figure out some way of discharging your debts.  That, however, is where the similarity between wealthy and impoverished debtors ended.

Whether in the famous Marshalsea in London where Charles Dickens had Little Dorritt’s father incarcerated (and where Dickens’s father had actually languished when the author was 12), or in the New Gaol in New York City, where men like Duer and Morris did their time, debtors prisons were segregated by class.  If your debts were large enough and your social connections weighty enough (the two tended to go together) you lived comfortably.  You were supplied with good food and well-appointed living quarters, as well as books and other pleasures, including on occasion manicurists and prostitutes. 

Robert Morris entertained George Washington for dinner in his “cell.” Once released, he resumed his career as the new nation’s richest man.  Before John Pintard moved to New Gaol, he redecorated his cell, had it repainted and upholstered, and shipped in two mahogany writing desks.

Meanwhile, the mass of petty debtors housed in the same institution survived, if at all, amid squalor, filth, and disease.  They were often shackled, and lacked heat, clean water, adequate food, or often food of any kind.  (You usually had to have the money to buy your own food, clothing, and fuel.)  Debtors in these prisons frequently found themselves quite literally dying of debt.  And you could end up in such circumstances for trivial sums.  Of the 1,162 jailed debtors in New York City in 1787, 716 owed less than twenty shillings or one pound.  A third of Philadelphia’s inmates in 1817 were there for owing less than $5, and debtors in the city’s prisons outnumbered violent criminals by 5:1.  In Boston, 15% of them were women.  Shaming was more the point of punishment than anything else.

Scenes of public pathos were commonplace.  Inmates at the New Gaol, if housed on its upper floors, would lower shoes out the window on strings to collect alms for their release.  Other prisons installed “beggar gates” through which those jailed in cellar dungeons could stretch out their palms for the odd coins from passersby.


Poor and rich alike wanted out.  Pamphleteering against the institution of debtor’s prison began in the 1750s.  An Anglican minister in South Carolina denounced the jails, noting that “a person would be in a better situation in the French King’s Gallies, or the Prisons of Turkey or Barbary than in this dismal place.”  Discontent grew.  A mass escape from New Gaol of 40 prisoners armed with pistols and clubs was prompted by extreme hunger. 

In the 1820s and 1830s, as artisans, journeymen, sailors, longshoremen, and other workers organized the early trade union movement as well as workingmen’s political parties, one principal demand was for the abolition of imprisonment for debt.  Inheritors of a radical political culture, their complaints echoed that Biblical tradition of Jubilee mentioned in Leviticus, which called for a cancellation of debts, the restoration of lost houses and land, and the freeing of slaves and bond servants every 50 years.

Falling into debt was a particularly ruinous affliction for those who aspired to modest independence as shopkeepers, handicraftsmen, or farmers.  As markets for their goods expanded but became ever less predictable, they found themselves taking out credit to survive and sometimes going into arrears, often followed by a stint in debtor’s prison that ended their dreams forever. 

However much the poor organized and protested, it was the rich who got debt relief first.  Today, we assume that debts can be discharged through bankruptcy (although even now that option is either severely restricted or denied to certain classes of less favored debt delinquents like college students).  Although the newly adopted U.S. Constitution opened the door to a national bankruptcy law, Congress didn’t walk through it until 1800, even though many, including the well-off, had been lobbying for it.

Enough of the old moral faith that frowned on debt as sinful lingered.  The United States has always been an uncharitable place when it comes to debt, a curious attitude for a society largely settled by absconding debtors and indentured servants (a form of time-bound debt peonage).  Indeed, the state of Georgia was founded as a debtor’s haven at a time when England’s jails were overflowing with debtors.

When Congress finally passed the Bankruptcy Act, those in the privileged quarters at New Gaol threw a party.  Down below, however, life continued in its squalid way, since the new law only applied to people who had sizable debts.  If you owed too little, you stayed in jail. 

Debt and the Birth of a Nation

Nowadays, the conservative media inundate us with warnings about debt from the Founding Fathers, and it’s true that some of them like Jefferson -- himself an inveterate, often near-bankrupt debtor -- did moralize on the subject.  However, Alexander Hamilton, an idol of the conservative movement, was the architect of the country’s first national debt, insisting that “if it is not excessive, [it] will be to us a national blessing.”

As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton’s goal was to transform the former 13 colonies, which today we would call an underdeveloped land, into a country that someday would rival Great Britain.  This, he knew, required liquid capital (resources not tied up in land or other less mobile forms of wealth), which could then be invested in sometimes highly speculative and risky enterprises.  Floating a national debt, he felt sure, would attract capital from well-positioned merchants at home and abroad, especially in England.

However, for most ordinary people living under the new government, debt aroused anger.  To begin with, there were all those veterans of the Revolutionary War and all the farmers who had supplied the revolutionary army with food and been paid in notoriously worthless “continentals” -- the currency issued by the Continental Congress -- or equally valueless state currencies.

As rumors of the formation of a new national government spread, speculators roamed the countryside buying up this paper money at a penny on the dollar, on the assumption that the debts they represented would be redeemed at face value.  In fact, that is just what Hamilton’s national debt would do, making these “sunshine patriots” quite rich, while leaving the yeomanry impoverished.

Outrage echoed across the country even before Hamilton’s plan got adopted.  Jefferson denounced the currency speculators as loathsome creatures and had this to say about debt in general: “The modern theory of the perpetuation of debt has drenched the earth with blood and crushed its inhabitants under burdens ever accumulating.”  He and others denounced the speculators as squadrons of counter-revolutionary “moneycrats” who would use their power and wealth to undo the democratic accomplishments of the revolution.

In contrast, Hamilton saw them as a disinterested monied elite upon whom the country’s economic well-being depended, while dismissing the criticisms of the Jeffersonians as the ravings of Jacobin levelers.  Soon enough, political warfare over the debt turned founding fathers into fratricidal brothers.  

Hamilton’s plan worked -- sometimes too well.  Wealthy speculators in land like Robert Morris, or in the building of docks, wharves, and other projects tied to trade, or in the national debt itself -- something William Duer and grandees like him specialized in -- seized the moment.  Often enough, however, they over-reached and found themselves, like the yeomen farmers and soldiers, in default to their creditors. 

Duer’s attempts to corner the market in the bonds issued by the new federal government and in the stock of the country’s first National Bank represented one of the earliest instances of insider trading.  They also proved a lurid example of how speculation could go disastrously wrong.  When the scheme collapsed, it caused the country’s first Wall Street panic and a local depression that spread through New England, ruining “shopkeepers, widows, orphans, butchers... gardeners, market women, and even the noted Bawd Mrs. McCarty.”   

A mob chased Duer through the streets of New York and might have hanged or disemboweled him had he not been rescued by the city sheriff, who sent him to the safety of debtor’s prison.  John Pintard, part of the same scheme, fled to Newark, New Jersey, before being caught and jailed as well.

Sending the Duers and Pintards of the new republic off to debtors’ prison was not, however, quite what Hamilton had in mind.  And leaving them rotting there was hardly going to foster the “enterprising spirit” that would, in the treasury secretary’s estimation, turn the country into the Great Britain of the next century.  Bankruptcy, on the other hand, ensured that the overextended could start again and keep the machinery of commercial transactions lubricated.  Hence, the Bankruptcy Act of 1800.

If, however, you were not a major player, debt functioned differently. Shouldered by the hoi polloi, it functioned as a mechanism for funneling wealth into the mercantile-financial hothouses where American capitalism was being incubated.

No wonder debt excited such violent political emotions.  Even before the Constitution was adopted, farmers in western Massachusetts, indebted to Boston bankers and merchants and in danger of losing their ancestral homes in the economic hard times of the 1780s, rose in armed rebellion.  In those years, the number of lawsuits for unpaid debt doubled and tripled, farms were seized, and their owners sent off to jail.  Incensed, farmers led by a former revolutionary soldier, Daniel Shays, closed local courts by force and liberated debtors from prisons.  Similar but smaller uprisings erupted in Maine, Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania, while in New Hampshire and Vermont irate farmers surrounded government offices. 

Shays' Rebellion of 1786 alarmed the country’s elites.  They depicted the unruly yeomen as “brutes” and their houses as “sties.”  They were frightened as well by state governments like Rhode Island’s that were more open to popular influence, declared debt moratoria, and issued paper currencies to help farmers and others pay off their debts.  These developments signaled the need for a stronger central government fully capable of suppressing future debtor insurgencies.

Federal authority established at the Constitutional Convention allowed for that, but the unrest continued.  Shays' Rebellion was but part one of a trilogy of uprisings that continued into the 1790s.  The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 was the most serious.  An excise tax (“whiskey tax”) meant to generate revenue to back up the national debt threatened the livelihoods of farmers in western Pennsylvania who used whiskey as a “currency” in a barter economy.  President Washington sent in troops, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, with Hamilton at their head to put down the rebels. 

Debt Servitude and Primitive Accumulation

Debt would continue to play a vital role in national and local political affairs throughout the nineteenth century, functioning as a form of capital accumulation in the financial sector, and often sinking pre-capitalist forms of life in the process. 

Before and during the time that capitalists were fully assuming the prerogatives of running the production process in field and factory, finance was building up its own resources from the outside.  Meanwhile, the mechanisms of public and private debt made the lives of farmers, craftsmen, shopkeepers, and others increasingly insupportable.

This parasitic economic metabolism helped account for the riotous nature of Gilded Age politics. Much of the high drama of late nineteenth-century political life circled around “greenbacks,” “free silver,” and "the gold standard."  These issues may strike us as arcane today, but they were incendiary then, threatening what some called a “second Civil War.”  In one way or another, they were centrally about debt, especially a system of indebtedness that was driving the independent farmer to extinction.

All the highways of global capitalism found their way into the trackless vastness of rural America.  Farmers there were not in dire straits because of their backwoods isolation.  On the contrary, it was because they turned out to be living at Ground Zero, where the explosive energies of financial and commercial modernity detonated.  A toxic combination of railroads, grain-elevator operators, farm-machinery manufacturers, commodity-exchange speculators, local merchants, and above all the banking establishment had the farmer at their mercy.  His helplessness was only aggravated when the nineteenth-century version of globalization left his crops in desperate competition with those from the steppes of Canada and Russia, as well as the outbacks of Australia and South America.

To survive this mercantile onslaught, farmers hooked themselves up to long lines of credit that stretched back to the financial centers of the East.  These lifelines allowed them to buy the seed, fertilizer, and machines needed to farm, pay the storage and freight charges that went with selling their crops, and keep house and home together while the plants ripened and the hogs fattened.  When market day finally arrived, the farmer found out just what all his backbreaking work was really worth.  If the news was bad, then those credit lines were shut off and he found himself dispossessed.

The family farm and the network of small town life that went with it were being washed into the rivers of capital heading for metropolitan America.  On the “sod house” frontier, poverty was a “badge of honor which decorated all.”  In hisDevil’s Dictionary, the acid-tongued humorist Ambrose Bierce defined the dilemma this way: “Debt. n. An ingenious substitute for the chain and whip of the slave-driver.”

Across the Great Plains and the cotton South, discontented farmers spread the blame for their predicament far and wide.  Anger, however, tended to pool around the strangulating system of currency and credit run out of the banking centers of the northeast. Beginning in the 1870s with the emergence of the Greenback Party and Greenback-Labor Party and culminating in the 1890s with the People’s or Populist Party, independent farmers, tenant farmers, sharecroppers, small businessmen, and skilled workers directed ever more intense hostility at “the money power.”

That “power” might appear locally in the homeliest of disguises.  At coal mines and other industrial sites, among “coolies” working to build the railroads or imported immigrant gang laborers and convicts leased to private concerns, workers were typically compelled to buy what they needed in company scrip at company stores at prices that left them perpetually in debt.  Proletarians were so precariously positioned that going into debt -- whether to pawnshops or employers, landlords or loan sharks -- was unavoidable.  Often they were paid in kind: wood chips, thread, hemp, scraps of canvas, cordage: nothing, that is, that was of any use in paying off accumulated debts.  In effect, they were, as they called themselves, “debt slaves.” 

In the South, hard-pressed growers found themselves embroiled in a crop-lien system, dependent on the local “furnishing agent” to supply everything needed, from seed to clothing to machinery, to get through the growing season.  In such situations, no money changed hands, just a note scribbled in the merchant’s ledger, with payment due at “settling up” time.  This granted the lender a lien, or title, to the crop, a lien that never went away.

In this fashion, the South became “a great pawn shop,” with farmers perpetually in debt at interest rates exceeding 100% per year.  In Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, 90% of farmers lived on credit.  The first lien you signed was essentially a life sentence.  Either that or you became a tenant farmer, or you simply left your land, something so commonplace that everyone knew what the letters “G.T.T.” on an abandoned farmhouse meant: “Gone to Texas.”  (One hundred thousand people a year were doing that in the 1870s.) 

The merchant’s exaction was so steep that African-Americans and immigrants in particular were regularly reduced to peonage -- forced, that is, to work to pay off their debt, an illegal but not uncommon practice.  And that neighborhood furnishing agent was often tied to the banks up north for his own lines of credit.  In this way, the sucking sound of money leaving for the great metropolises reverberated from region to region.

Facing dispossession, farmers formed alliances to set up cooperatives to extend credit to one another and market crops themselves.  As one Populist editorialist remarked, this was the way “mortgage-burdened farmers can assert their freedom from the tyranny of organized capital.”  But when they found that these groupings couldn’t survive the competitive pressure of the banking establishment, politics beckoned.

From one presidential election to the next and in state contests throughout the South and West, irate grain and cotton growers demanded that the government expand the paper currency supply, those “greenbacks,” also known as “the people’s money,” or that it monetize silver, again to enlarge the money supply, or that it set up public institutions to finance farmers during the growing season.  With a passion hard for us to imagine, they railed against the “gold standard” which, in Democratic Party presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan’s famous cry, should no longer be allowed to “crucify mankind on a cross of gold.”

Should that cross of gold stay fixed in place, one Alabama physician prophesied, it would “reduce the American yeomanry to menials and paupers, to be driven by monopolies like cattle and swine.”  As Election Day approached, populist editors and speakers warned of an approaching war with “the money power,” and they meant it.  “The fight will come and let it come!”

The idea was to force the government to deliberately inflate the currency and so raise farm prices.  And the reason for doing that?  To get out from under the sea of debt in which they were submerged.  It was a cry from the heart and it echoed and re-echoed across the heartland, coming nearer to upsetting the established order than any American political upheaval before or since. 

The passion of those populist farmers and laborers was matched by that of their enemies, men at the top of the economy and government for whom debt had long been a road to riches rather than destitution.  They dismissed their foes as “cranks” and “calamity howlers.”  And in the election of 1896, they won.  Bryan went down to defeat, gold continued its pitiless process of crucifixion, and a whole human ecology was set on a path to extinction.

The Return of Debt Servitude

When populism died, debt -- as a spark for national political confrontation -- died, too.  The great reform eras that followed -- Progessivism, the New Deal, and the Great Society -- were preoccupied with inequality, economic collapse, exploitation in the workplace, and the outsized nature of corporate power in a consolidated industrial capitalist system.

Rumblings about debt servitude could certainly still be heard.  Foreclosed farmers during the Great Depression mobilized, held “penny auctions” to restore farms to families, hanged judges in effigy, and forced Prudential Insurance Company, the largest land creditor in Iowa, to suspend foreclosures on 37,000 farms (which persuaded Metropolitan Life Insurance Company to do likewise).  A Kansas City realtor was shot in the act of foreclosing on a family farm, a country sheriff kidnapped while trying to evict a farm widow and dumped 10 miles out of town, and so on.

Urban renters and homeowners facing eviction formed neighborhood groups to stop the local sheriff or police from throwing families out of their houses or apartments. Furniture tossed into the street in eviction proceedings would be restored by neighbors, who would also turn the gas and electricity back on.  New Deal farm and housing finance legislation bailed out banks and homeowners alike.  Right-wing populists like the Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin carried on the war against the gold standard in tirades tinged with anti-Semitism.  Signs like one in Nebraska -- “The Jew System of Banking” (illustrated with a giant rattlesnake) -- showed up too often.

But the age of primitive accumulation in which debt and the financial sector had played such a strategic role was drawing to a close. 

Today, we have entered a new phase.  What might be called capitalist underdevelopment and once again debt has emerged as both the central mode of capital accumulation and a principal mechanism of servitude.  Warren Buffett (of all people) has predicted that, in the coming decades, the United States is more likely to turn into a “sharecropper society” than an “ownership society.”

In our time, the financial sector has enriched itself by devouring the productive wherewithal of industrial America through debt, starving the public sector of resources, and saddling ordinary working people with every conceivable form of consumer debt.

Household debt, which in 1952 was at 36% of total personal income, had by 2006 hit 127%.  Even financing poverty became a lucrative enterprise.  Taking advantage of the low credit ratings of poor people and their need for cash to pay monthly bills or simply feed themselves, some check-cashing outlets, payday lenders, tax preparers, and others levy interest of 200% to 300% and more.  As recently as the 1970s, a good part of this would have been considered illegal under usury laws that no longer exist.  And these poverty creditors are often tied to the largest financiers, including Citibank, Bank of America, and American Express.

Credit has come to function as a “plastic safety net” in a world of job insecurity, declining state support, and slow-motion economic growth, especially among the elderly, young adults, and low-income families.  More than half the pre-tax income of these three groups goes to servicing debt.  Nowadays, however, the “company store” is headquartered on Wall Street.

Debt is driving this system of auto-cannibalism which, by every measure of social wellbeing, is relentlessly turning a developed country into an underdeveloped one.  

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are back.  Is a political resistance to debt servitude once again imaginable?

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