Installation of CCTV cameras along a public bridleway in Leicestershire without warning has sparked privacy fears among nearby residents.
Concern is also growing over future development on the path linking the villages of Lockington and Hemington.
The bridleway crosses the site of a proposed rail freight terminal next to East Midlands Airport.
The company behind the project said the cameras were in place to count how many people used the paths.
Hemington resident Dr Terence Hope said villagers had received no warning.
He said: “It’s an arrogant, high-handed way to go about surveying.”
Roxhill Developments said the information gathered would be used in deciding the transport infrastructure they would need to put in place for any rail freight terminal.